The ‘super-deep’ royal diamonds revealing Earth’s secrets

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The largest diamonds in the British Crown Jewels may be pieces of the ancient ocean floor, which have drifted down into the interior of our planet – then come back up again.


The package arrived in a plain cardboard box. It was simply addressed to S Neumann & Co – a mining sales agency in the centre of London – and weighed just over a pound (around 500g). But this was no ordinary cargo.It was April 1905, and three months earlier, the surface manager at the Premier Mine in South Africa had been completing a routine inspection 18ft (5.4m) underground, when he glimpsed a reflected light in the rough wall above him. He assumed it was a large piece of glass hammered in by colleagues as a practical joke. Just in case, out came his pocket knife, and after some digging… the knife promptly snapped. Eventually the rock was removed successfully, and revealed to be a bona fide diamond – a monster 3,106.75-carat stone, almost the size of a fist. It was not only enormous, but unusually transparent.The Cullinan, as it became known, is the largest diamond ever found. Once it had been polished and cleaved into several more manageable stones, the largest crystal it yielded would shine like the cool glow of a star in a distant galaxy. As a result, this stone – the Cullinan I – is sometimes known as the Great Star of Africa.

Nearly 120 years later, the mega-diamond has not been forgotten. During the late Queen Elizabeth II’s funeral procession, several of the Cullinan’s descendants were placed on the Monarch’s coffin, and rode along with her – they were only removed as she was lowered into the royal vault. That’s because today these giant gems are part of the Crown Jewels, normally kept in the Tower of London and brought out for state events – the Cullinan I now resides in the British Sovereign’s Sceptre, while its next-largest sibling, the Cullinan II, is embedded in the Imperial State Crown.

However, before the rough diamond could have its makeover and take its place in history, it needed to be sold – and London was chosen as the most promising location to do this. This presented a problem: how do you transport such a valuable stone 7,926 miles (12,755km), without it being stolen?

In the end, the precious rock was sent all the way from Johannesburg by ordinary registered post, at a cost of just three shillings or about 75 US Cents at the time (around £11.79 or US$13.79 today). Meanwhile, a replica of the diamond made the long voyage to London by steamboat – it was placed conspicuously within the captain’s safe and guarded by police detectives as a decoy. Amazingly, both made it to their destination. After years of failing to sell, the diamond – the real version, this time – was purchased by the Transvaal government for £150,000 (£20m or US$22.5m today) and gifted to King Edward VII. But though they’re renowned across the globe for their size and transparency, these characteristics are no accident. The Cullinan was a “Clippir” diamond – a member of a special category of the very largest and clearest examples ever found. And there is more to them than meets the eye.For all their beauty, diamonds are really fragments of the deep Earth – intriguing geological anomalies disguised as mere jewellery. These strange rocks are capsules from another world – a mysterious realm of unfathomable pressures, swirling green rock, and elusive minerals, far below the Earth’s surface. Scientists around the globe have been studying them for decades to reveal the region’s secrets – and intriguingly, it’s the very diamonds that we value most that have the most unusual stories to tell. In fact, large rocks like the Cullinan are transforming our understanding of the inside of our planet.An unusual opportunity Sitting in front of a microscope at the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) in 2020, Evan Smith carefully stretched some rubber gloves over his fingers, and peered into the instrument’s lenses. Beneath was a diamond worth almost as much as a small country – about the size of a walnut, with 124 carats of wonderous brilliance. To reach this point, Smith had already navigated almost military levels of security – iris scans and identity checks, followed by layer after layer of locked doors, secure lifts and mysterious restricted corridors. While he worked, video cameras streamed a constant view of the room to watchful security guards.

Evan Smith 10
Smith – a senior research scientist

Smith – a senior research scientist at GIA – was examining the diamond for inclusions, chemical hitchhikers from the interior of our planet that can reveal how the crystal formed, and under what conditions. But working with high-value diamonds is a tricky business – ordinarily, it’s impossible for researchers to get their hands on the largest specimens. They’re sometimes flown around the world to visit potential customers – alas, never scientists.

Maya Kopylova, a professor of mineral exploration at the University of British Columbia

Maya Kopylova, a professor of mineral exploration at the University of British Columbia, says getting samples of any diamonds is hard, and most of the diamonds she works with would have otherwise been thrown away. “Researchers have to have a good relationship with companies and they will never give you valuable samples,” she says. “So, they will never give us diamonds that are 6mm (0.2 inches) in size or larger.”Even then, acquiring them is convoluted and expensive – first, Kopylova has to visit the high-security facilities where diamonds are sorted and identify the specimens she’d like to study. Once the acquisition has been approved, then comes the paperwork – all diamonds must travel with a Kimberley Process certificate, which proves its provenance and helps to prevent conflict or “blood” diamonds from entering the market.However, Smith’s situation is different. At GIA, he has access to one of the largest collections of diamonds on the planet – millions of gems that have been sent there to be valued, so that they can be insured or sold. “If you want to see something rare and unusual, this is the perfect place to go because there are diamonds coming through here all the time,” says Smith. “Every few days, you might get to borrow a diamond for maybe a few hours, maybe a day or two and study it.”A few years earlier, this is exactly what Smith had done. Together with an international team of scientists, he casually requisitioned 53 of the largest, clearest and most expensive available – including some from the same mine as the Cullinan diamond – and took them back to his laboratory to view under a microscope.What Smith found was revolutionary. Nearly three-quarters of the Clippir diamonds contained tiny pockets, or “inclusions” of metal that had avoided rusting – not something you’d find in ordinary ones – while the remaining 15 contained a kind of garnet which only forms within the Earth’s mantle, the layer above its molten core.Together, these inclusions provide chemical clues that the diamonds could only have formed no fewer than 360km (224 miles) and no more than 750km (466 miles) underfoot. In this Goldilocks zone, it’s deep enough to explain the metal inclusions that hadn’t been exposed to oxygen, which is abundant higher up, and it’s not so deep that the garnet rocks would have broken down under the immense pressures of the lower mantle. Ordinary diamonds, meanwhile, originate below the crust, just 150-200km (93-124 miles) down. For his 2020 study – together with Wuyi Wang, who is vice presedent of research & development at GIA – Smith analysed the 124-carat diamond and found that it formed at the deeper end of the possible range – at least 660km (410 miles) below the Earth’s surface.

Some of the carbon in super-deep diamonds may be from ancient sea creatures, which were buried in oceanic plates that subsequently drifted down into the mantle

From the depths

Back in the 1980s, geologists began to notice that some diamonds looked different to others – sometimes they contained minerals that could suggest they formed at higher pressures than regular ones (more on this later). “We started to wonder whether some diamonds might actually be formed deeper than others.”

THE CULLINAN DIAMONDS Once it had arrived in London safely, the rough Cullinan diamond was sent to be cut by Joseph Asscher. It’s reported that the rock was so massive, the first heavy blow of the hammer led to yet another knife casualty (it broke) – and made him faint. However, eventually Asscher managed to divide the diamond into nine major stones, the largest of which was 530.20 carats – a measure of its weight – and 96 smaller ones. While the larger stones became part of the British Crown Jewels or the British monarch’s private collection, the smaller fragments were sold to various clients around the world.

Around the same time, they noticed a puzzling pattern. Most diamonds – called Type I – contain a significant amount of nitrogen, which affects their crystal structure and can add a hint of pale yellow or brown. Occasionally, though, a diamond has almost no detectable traces of this element. These are the Type II diamonds, and the phenomenon is extremely rare – except in the very largest diamonds.”It’s not just that they’re big that sets them apart,” says Smith. “When you look at these big, high-quality [type II] diamonds, like the Cullinan, there turned out to be something strange about them, that makes them more likely to fall into this category that should otherwise be something very rare. So this was kind of a long-standing mystery.”Eventually scientists discovered that some diamonds are “super-deep”, and identified a handful of mines where they were most likely to be found – including the Cullinan mine in South Africa and Letseng mine in the nearby kingdom of Lesotho, where Smith’s 124-carat specimen originated.

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Today many super-deep diamonds come from the Cullinan mine in South Africa, and Letseng mine in the neighbouring country of Lesotho

But for decades, most of the diamonds found to be from deeper in the Earth were small and not particularly valuable. Studying large, expensive diamonds has always been tricky – no one had checked if they could also fit into this category. “We never really thought of them as something that could be gem quality – that we would ever be wearing super-deep diamonds or, you know, putting them in crowns or sceptres or anything like that,” says Smith.The final clincher in Smith’s 2020 study was an elusive mineral that was only seen for the first time six years earlier – found in a 4.5 billion-year-old meteorite that slammed into the Earth back in 1879.It’s thought that the ancient extra-terrestrial rock had once been part of a much larger celestial object, an asteroid, and broke off during a catastrophic impact. During this process, it experienced staggeringly high pressures, similar to those found within the Earth.The Tenham meteorite, as it is known, broke up as it fell, scattering fragments across Queensland, Australia – many of which were collected and eventually gifted to the British Museum in London by a geologist’s widow. Fast-forward 143 years, and the fragments have been extensively studied, particularly for what they might tell us about our planet’s interior.And in 2014, scientists glimpsed the mineral bridgmanite within one of these alien rocks. Though it’s the most abundant material on Earth, it can only exist at the high pressures found in the lower mantle, the layer above the Earth’s molten core. Like many high-pressure minerals, it breaks up when it gets to the surface – and this was the first time it had ever been seen.Amazingly, the 124-carat gem Smith studied contained this very mineral, though in its broken-down form – even inside diamonds, it doesn’t usually survive the journey up. This suggests that the glittering rock formed within the lower mantle, at pressures at least 240,000 times those at sea level. That’s 240 times the crushing pressure in the deepest part of the ocean, the Mariana Trench.But why does this all make super-deep diamonds so different? And what can they tell us about the hidden world they’re made in?

Ancient carbon

According to Smith, the unusual qualities of the world’s largest and most valuable diamonds are all down to the way they form.

Even the origins of regular diamonds are still somewhat mysterious, but they’re thought to start life as a fluid – most likely ancient seawater trapped deep underground along with sinking oceanic plates. Somehow, perhaps due to a sudden change in temperature or pressure, this mineral-rich water ends up rejecting the carbon that’s dissolved within it, which is precipitated out – and under the immense pressures below the Earth’s crust, the carbon crystallises into diamonds.

But super-deep diamonds like the Cullinan are different. Instead of a beginning within water, these start life as carbon dissolved within liquid metal, far down in the planet’s interior. “It’s like molten iron nickel alloy with sulphur and carbon dissolved in that,” says Smith. “So it’s a totally different kind of fluid, but it’s still carbon fluid. It’s undergoing whatever chemical or temperature changes, and that’s causing carbon to crystallise out.” In this case, the initial fluid contains less nitrogen, so they end up with very little of this element – and are consequently more transparent. 

In short, Clippir diamonds aren’t just regular ones that have somehow grown to remarkable proportions – they’re fundamentally different. In fact, their unparalleled size and transparency are a direct result of the unusual way they form. And since their discovery, super-deep diamonds have revealed some of our planet’s most closely guarded secrets.


“I think the biggest thing they [super-deep diamonds] inform us about is the process of subduction – when an oceanic tectonic plate, sinks down into the Earth,” says Smith.This is the phenomenon we all learn about in classes at school – the Earth is split up into seven tectonic plates, which “float” around on the surface, generating earthquakes when they rub against one another, and volcanoes when they move apart or get too close. Crucially, while new plates are constantly being formed, some are also slowly slipping below the crust, never to be seen again.


Many of the Crown Jewels come from countries that were colonised by the British.ff As a result of this legacy, the Cullinan diamonds remain controversial in South Africa, and recently there have been calls to return them. Separately, several countries have asked for the return of the Koh-i-Noor, which sits next to the Cullinan II in the Imperial State Crown. This diamond, which is also of super-deep origin, is thought to have been mined in India up to a thousand years ago – its early history has been lost. It was passed between the hands of generations of rulers in South Asia before it was acquired by Queen Victoria when the Punjab Region was annexed by the British in the mid-19th Century.

But though scientists have long suspected that these vanished, subducting plates – which are usually heavier, oceanic ones – eventually drift down into the lower mantle, this has never been confirmed. “You can go to a volcano and say, ‘yeah, this magma comes out of the Earth’, or go to spreading centres of the oceans and see, that there’s new crust forming…But it’s really difficult to do the opposite and say, what’s going down into the Earth?” says Smith. Super-deep diamonds can provide important clues, because amazingly, these disappeared tectonic plates might be what they are made of. “So we’ve seen diamonds that look like they’re essentially pieces of the oceanic crust that have been carried down to the lower mantle,” says Smith. “These diamonds are physically telling us that this process is physically true.”Other than confirming what happens to oceanic plates that end up in the interior of our planet, super-deep diamonds also tell us about the kinds of things you might find in the lower mantle. For a start, there must be carbon, or the diamonds wouldn’t exist. But in 2021, the discovery of a rare super-deep diamond from Juína, Brazil, hinted that there may also be whole “oceans” of water.

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The largest diamonds in the world also tend to be exceptionally transparent

The diamond contains a pocket of a vivid blue mineral, hydrous ringwoodite, which is a high-pressure form of olivine, the green rock that makes up most of the upper mantle. Under the microscope, it looks like a tiny shard of indigo glass – and this type contains around 2.5% water.For years, scientists have believed that all the water at the Earth’s surface – in rivers, ice sheets, lakes and oceans – ultimately comes from the mantle. But where exactly it could be stored has been up for debate, particularly because olivine does not store water well. However, the discovery of water-saturated ringwoodite suggests that it’s stored lower down, in the same region where many super-deep diamonds form.The more scientists learn about them, the clearer it becomes that super-deep diamonds aren’t just extraordinary valuable in monetary terms – without them, many of the processes inside the Earth would have remained hidden from view.”There is definitely a wow factor when you’re trying to scrutinise something under the microscope, but then you also have in the back of your mind this idea that the object you’re handling is worth millions of dollars,” says Smith. “And it struck me a few times, I mean, just looking at some of these things, and thinking about, ‘Oh wouldn’t it be great if we could break this open or study in more detail just because it’s such a fascinating scientific sample’… but then you can’t because it’s such a valuable gemstone. There’s kind of a weird duality.”Since smashing diamonds is generally frowned upon, Smith can’t help longing for a less destructive – though no less radical – alternative: leaving diamonds in their rough form. When the rocks emerge from the Earth, they’re lumpy and coarse, with none of the sparkle they acquire after they’ve been cut and polished – but the surface you see reads like a history of their adventures underground.”The diamond can be chemically etched away by magma, and you end up with these really unusual shapes and intricate features… the natural surfaces that have been sculpted by all these different forces over millions of years. That is unique, and I see a lot of beauty in that.”

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CBSE Board Exam 2023

Fake Trading companies dominate in the United kingdome

cryptonic trade ltd froud

Fake Trading companies dominate in the United kingdome, fraud trading companies are doing fraud with people, it seems that the government there is also encouraging such companies, that’s why no action is being taken against such companies even after the complaint!

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Cryptonic trrade limited is a Registerd Froud Company of UK

In detail

Let us tell you that the agents of such companies who are women, they contact people from other countries through online mediums like Twitter, Telegram, Facebook, Email etc. They give attractive offers and then first get good offers through them. People who are trapped in the trap are happy to see the profit (as you can see in the photo a lady named Sera who describes herself as the Senior Manager of Kryptonic Trade Ltd.) on $100 investment, 20% profit within 4 days Given, if more money is invested then more profit is made, and thus these fraud companies give referral income along with profit as well as target.

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Offer given by cryptonic trade ltd

When thousands of people from these companies make their investment, this company starts its game, gives a bonus of thousand times more than the original amount to the investor as a bonus, now the person becomes very happy, shares it in his group. Is. Now the game of greed starts, now people invest all their deposits in such companies, many people also invest in these companies by taking loans, but the amazing thing starts when people want to withdraw their income from these companies and such companies ask people to deposit 10 to 20% of the total amount.

Now a person has deposited $100, then the company gives him a bonus of $ 20000 with 20% interest on the last day and says you will be able to withdraw it only when you deposit 10% of the total amount, now the person who has deposited Having invested $100, he now reinvests $2132 without wanting to do so. As soon as the person wants to withdraw his money, he is again caught in the bonus game and the person loses his principal along with the interest.

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Invest 100 dallor but company give 3574 dallor of bonus and demand 10%

People of the above company who mislead people by doing it in different wa

As per information we have contacted those people and want to inform that one of them is a woman named Sera, whose mobile number is +447438836768, who pretends to be a senior account manager, has been contacted by people on Telegram and WhatsApp. contact is made through Which works to entrap people in their trap.

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Immage of Sera

Another female name is Lane she is right hand of Sera whose mobile number is +1(830)2503654, her username on telegram is @Lane5, it tells the user to be a resident of Switzerland but based on location it is known The address is found to be Gopichintapalli United States which is in Nixon Texas, United States. It mainly traps the user on the basis of lucrative promises with his sweet talk and gets in touch with a woman named Sera.

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Image of Lane

I want to tell all of you that there may be more women and men in its team, there is a need to take them into custody and inquire.

Tells itself it is a registered company

Registered office address : NI648532 COMPANIES HOUSE, DEFAULT ADDRESS: 2nd Floor, The Linenhall 32-38 Linenhall Street, Belfast, BT2 8BG Company status – Dissolved, Dissolved on-21 December 2021, Company type- Private limited Company, Incorporated on- 9 October 2017

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Last accounts made up to 31 October 2019

Nature of business (SIC)

  • 70221 – Financial management

Filter officers

Filter officersCurrent officers

Officers:2 officers / 1 resignation

PARKES, Jeremy Ayitey

Correspondence address : Unit 3, 21, Botanic Avenue, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT7 1JJ Role Director, Date of birth- April 1973, Appointed on: 25 July 2019, Nationality: British, Country of residence :Cyprus, Occupation :Businessman


Company number NI648532

Some aware people against this company have been mailed in the UK and the US government, and the Parliament has also been told about this company by mail. The report has been filed with UK Police and Cybercrime, Google has been matched with evidence to remove it from the site.

Other companies involved in this type of business

Many companies are working in this type of market, which first traps people and then runs away with millions of dollars, a few months ago a fraud company named SHOPER ran away with millions of dollars of people, similarly CCH (Cloud Mining) company Which is now getting people to invest millions of dollars in the form of mining in the market, and will run away seeing the opportunity.

Neither the body of such companies is being caught, nor is there any control of the government on such commandments, seeing that even the government suspects that many people of the government are not involved in it, it is a matter of investigation.

If the government pays attention, then these companies can be imposed. Now it has to be seen how much the UK and US government are aware of this article of ours.

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complain copy
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This article has been written by Madan Singh, so if you like it, then write it and share it with your friends so that they can avoid this type of fraud.

Madan Singh

Amitabh Trolled After ANI News

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Allow us to let you know that ANI made a tweet on Twitter, on which individuals caused a ton of ruckus.

Tell us the news on which individuals caused commotion

Bollywood legend & Veteran Actor Amitabh Bachchan filed a suit in Delhi High Court seeking protection of his personality rights. Eminent lawyer Harish Salve appearing for him. The matter is underway before Justice Navin Chawla

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Written by Imperfect Jitendar: As u said even after living almost 95% of his life span he is still so much involved in all materialistic world.This is human traits. Motivational speaker would explain it other way.But for some people he is only interested to remain part of this Bhavsagar.

They did astonishing

The AstroSapien labeled ankit’s message saying exactly the same thing.

Trolled by @gyanjarahatke :

@ Mr. Bachchan, advanced age has come.At death’s doorstep and the other on a banana strip.Quit passing on for cash now.Your shameful youngsters couldn’t accomplish anything in existence with the assistance of your name, photograph and voice, why are they venting their resentment on other destitute individuals.

DS replying

What is your viewpoint on this news, do tell by remarking.

Examination of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

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The Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) is formed by selective dialysis of Plasma by the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Through the foramina in the 4th ventricle it then passes into the subarachnoidal cisterns at the base of the brain and travels over the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. It is finally absorbed into the blood in the cerebral veins and rural sinuses. CSF is present in the cavity that surrounds the brain in the skull and the spinal cord in the spinal colum. The volume of CSF (adult) is about 150 ml. CSF performs flowing functions .

  1. It helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury by acting like a fluid buffer.
  2. It also acts as a medium for transfer of substances from the brain tissue and spinal cord to blood.

Normal Composition of CSF

  1. Color : Colorless
  2. pH : 7.3 – 7.4
  3. Appearance : Clear
  4. No clot formation on standing
  5. Specific gravity : 1.003 – 1.008
  6. Total solids : 0.85 – 1.70 g/dl
  • Protein : 15 – 45 mg/dl ( album in: 50 – 70% and globulin : 30 – 50%)
  • Glucose : 40 – 80%
  • Chloride : 700 – 750 mEq/l
  • Sodium : 144 – 154 mEq/l
  • Potassium : 2.0 – 3.5 mEq/l
  • Creatinine : 0.5 – 1.2 mg/dl
  • Cholesterol : 0.2 – 0.6 mg/dl
  • Ures : 6 – 16 g/dl
  • Uric acid : 0.5 – 4.5 mg/dl

7. Cells : 0 – 8 Lymphocyte/ per Cumm (μL) ( Neutrophils : absent)

Clinical Significance

CSF examination is carried out in the laboratory mainly for the diagnosis of meningitis. It is inflammation of the meninges, the lining of the skull and covering of the brain and spinal colum. Meningitis causes disturbance in the central nervous system. The Other clinical conditions in the which CSF examination may be required are encephalitis, subarachonoid hemorrage, spinal cord tumor, multiple sclerosis, central nervous system syphilis etc. CSF examination is also carried out in the treatments of elevated CSF pressure in selected patient with benign intracranial hypertension.

Following are the changes observed in CSF in various clinical conditions

Bacterial infection

  1. Appearance : Cloudy
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : >500 Neutrophils
  3. Glucose : Low value ( 0- 40mg/dl)
  4. Chlorides : Marked decrease (600- 700 mg/dl)
  5. Proteins : High values (45-300 mg/dl)

Viral infection

  1. Appearance : Clear
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) :(10-200) mostly Lymphocytes
  3. Glucose : Slightly low or normal
  4. Chlorides : Moderate decrease
  5. Proteins :High values (45-300 mg/dl)

Fungal infection ( very rare)

  1. Appearance : Clear
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : (0-5) lymphocyte
  3. Glucose : Low values (0-40 mg/dl)
  4. Chlorides : Normal or slight decrease
  5. Proteins : Normal

Acute purulent meningitis

  1. Appearance : Cloudy to purulent cloy
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : Very high count (500-20000) per cumm mostly neutrophils
  3. Glucose : Very low values (0-40 mg/dl)
  4. Chlorides : Low values (600-700 mg/dl)
  5. Proteins : Very high (45 -1000 mg/dl) increase in globulins

Tuberculous meningitis

  1. Appearance : Cloudy, fibrin web
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : High count (10-500mg/dl) mostly lymphocyte
  3. Glucose : Very low values (0-40 mg/dl)
  4. Chlorides : Very low values (500-600mg/dl)
  5. Proteins : High values (45-500 mg/dl), Increase in globulins

Acute Syphilitic meningitis

  1. Appearance : Clear or turbid
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : High count (20-2000) mostly Lymphocytes
  3. Glucose : Low values (0-40 mg/dl)
  4. Chlorides : Normal or slightly decreased
  5. Proteins :Normal

Brain tumor

  1. Appearance : Clear or turbid
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : High count (25-2000) mostly Lymphocytes
  3. Glucose : Low values (0-40 mg/dl)
  4. Chlorides : Normal or slightly decreased
  5. Proteins : Increased, globulin : increased

Cerebral hemorrhage

  1. Appearance : Xanthochromic
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : 0 – 5
  3. Glucose : variable
  4. Chlorides : Normal
  5. Proteins : Increased, Globulin : Normal

Encephalitis Lethargic

  1. Appearance : Clear
  2. Cells/ Cumm (μL) : 10 – 100 all Lymphocyte
  3. Glucose : Slightly increased 80 – 120 mg/dl
  4. Chlorides : Normal
  5. Proteins : Normal or increased

For more….

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  2. Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold
  3. Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge
  4. The ‘super-deep’ royal diamonds revealing Earth’s
  5. Mendel law in Hindi | Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance in Hindi

Specimen collection

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  • The specimen should be collected by a physician, a specially trained technician or nurse.
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  • The sterile lumber puncture needle is inserted between the 4th and 5th lumber vertebra to adapt of 4-5 cm.
  • After the withdrawal of stylet the fluid is collected throw the needle into two test tubes.
  • 1. Tube 1: (sterile tube) about 0.5 ml or few drops of CSF
  • 2. Tube 2. About 3 to 5 ml of CSF.
  • Important
  • 1. The specimen in tube no. 1 may be used for bacterial culture (if necessary) : Refer to Bacteriology Section for further details.
  • 2. Specimen in the second tube is centrifuged.
  • a) Supernatant is used for the biochemical test such as glucose, protein, globulin and chlorides.
  • b) Use the sediment for the following purposes.
  • i. Prepare 3 smears.
  • – Smear 1: for Gram’s staining
  • – Smear 2 : for Acid – fast staining
  • – Smear 3 : for differential leukocyte count
  • ii. Prepare weight mount for Trypanosoma
  • iii. Proceed for Indian ink preparation in case of cryptococcus infection.
Always remember
  1. The collected CSF specimen must be examined immediately (at least within 1 hours of the collection).
  2. The specimen collected for bacterial culture should not be stored in the refrigerator. (The commonly sought pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is killed by exposure to cold). The specimen meant for biochemical tests only, may be stored at 3-80C for 3 to 3 hrs.
  3. Cells and Trypanosomes are rapidly lysed after the collection of CSF. Hence urgent analysis if CSF is necessary.
  4. The specimen is difficult to collect, hence once it is collected it is necessary to analyze the specimen carefully and economically.
  5. The specimen may contain virulent organisms, hence it I’d necessary to handle it carefully.

Why Get CSF Tested?

To diagnose a disease or condition affecting the central nervous system such as meningitis, encephalitis, bleeding around the brain, cancer, or autoimmune disorder

When To Get CSF Tested?

When your health care provider suspects that your symptoms are due to a condition or disease involving your central nervous system

Sample Required?

A sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected by a health care practitioner from the lower back using a procedure called a lumbar puncture or spinal tap

Test Preparation Needed?

You will be instructed to empty your bladder and bowels prior to sample collection. It will be necessary to lie still in a curled-up fetal position during the collection and to lie flat and still for a time period after the collection.

What is being tested?

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, watery liquid that flows around the brain and spinal cord, surrounding and protecting them. CSF testing is performed to evaluate the level or concentration of different substances and cells in CSF in order to diagnose conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).CSF is produced and secreted by the choroid plexus, a special tissue that has many blood vessels and that lines the small cavities or chambers (ventricles) in the brain. The total CSF volume is 3-5 ounces (90-150 mL) in adults and 0.3-2 ounces (10-60 mL) in newborns. CSF is continually produced, circulated, and then absorbed into the blood. About 17 ounces (500 mL) of CSF are produced each day. This rate of production means that all the CSF is replaced every few hours.A protective, semi-permeable barrier separates the brain from the bloodstream. This blood-brain barrier allows some substances to cross and prevents other substances from crossing. Importantly, it helps keep large molecules, toxins, and most blood cells away from the central nervous system. Any condition that disrupts this protective barrier may result in a change in the normal level or makeup of CSF. Because CSF surrounds the brain and spinal cord, testing a sample of CSF can be very valuable in diagnosing a variety of conditions affecting the central nervous system.Although a sample of CSF may be more difficult to obtain than, for example, urine or blood, the results of CSF testing may reveal more directly the cause of central nervous system conditions. The following are some examples:Meningitis, an infection of the layers that cover the brain and spinal cord (meninges), and encephalitis, an infection in the brainAutoimmune diseases that affect the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosisCancers of the central nervous system or cancers that have spread to the central nervous system, such as leukemiaAlzheimer disease, an irreversible form of dementia.

When is it ordered?

CSF testing may be ordered when your health care practitioner suspects that you have a condition or disease involving your central nervous system. It may be ordered when:

  • You have suffered trauma to the brain or spinal cord
  • You have been diagnosed with cancer that may have spread into the central nervous system
  • Your medical history and/or signs or symptoms suggest a condition affecting your central nervous system. The signs and symptoms of central nervous system conditions can vary widely and many overlap with a variety of diseases and disorders. They may have sudden onset, suggesting an acute condition, such as central nervous system bleeding or infection, or may be slow to develop, indicating a chronic disease, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer disease.

CSF testing may be ordered when you have some combination of the following signs and symptoms, especially when accompanied by flu-like symptoms that intensify over a few hours to a few days and fever:

  • Changes in mental status and consciousness
  • Sudden, severe or persistent headache or a stiff neck
  • Confusion, hallucinations or seizures
  • Muscle weakness or lethargy, fatigue
  • Nausea (severe or prolonged)
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Numbness or tremor
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulties with speech
  • Difficulty walking, lack of coordination
  • Mood swings, depression
  • Infants may be increasingly irritable, cry when they are held, have body stiffness, refuse food, and have bulging fontanels (the soft spots on the top of the head)

What other tests may be done in addition to CSF testing?

Other laboratory tests that may be ordered along with or following CSF testing include:Blood culture—to detect and identify bacteria or fungi in the bloodCulture and/or molecular testing of specimens collected from other possible sites of infection that led to meningitis or encephalitisBlood glucose, total protein—to compare with CSF glucose and protein levelsCBC (complete blood count)—to evaluate cell counts in bloodBlood tests (serologic testing) to detect proteins released from disease-causing microbes (pathogens) or antibodies against a variety of pathogens, such as West Nile Virus and other arbovirusesCRP (C-reactive protein)—this is the preferred test to detect inflammation. An ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) may be done instead if CRP is not available.CMP (comprehensive metabolic panel)—a group of tests used to evaluate electrolyte balance and the health of your organs.


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a group of laboratory tests that measure chemicals in the cerebrospinal fluid. CSF is a clear fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The tests may look for proteins, sugar (glucose), and other substances.

Alternative Names

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

How the Test is Performed

A sample of CSF is needed. A lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, is the most common way to collect this sample. Less common ways to take a fluid sample include:

  • Cisternal puncture
  • Removal of CSF from a tube that is already in the CSF, such as a shunt, ventricular drain, or pain pump
  • Ventricular puncture

After the sample is taken, it is sent to the laboratory for evaluation.

Your doctor will ask you to lie flat for at least one hour after the lumbar puncture. You may develop a headache after the lumbar puncture. If it happens, drinking caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea or soda may help.

How to Prepare for the Test

Your health care provider will tell you how to prepare for lumbar puncture.

Why the Test is Performed

Analysis of CSF can help detect certain conditions and diseases. All of the following can be, but are not always, measured in a sample of CSF:

  • Antibodies and DNA of common viruses
  • Bacteria (including that which causes syphilis, using a VDRL test)
  • Cell count
  • Chloride
  • Cryptococcal antigen
  • Glucose
  • Glutamine
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • Oligoclonal banding to look for specific proteins
  • Myelin basic protein 
  • Total protein
  • Whether there are cancerous cells present
  • Opening pressure 

Normal Results

Normal results include:

  • Antibodies and DNA of common viruses: None
  • Bacteria: No bacteria grows in a lab culture
  • Cancerous cells: No cancerous cells present
  • Cell count: less than 5 white blood cells (all mononuclear) and 0 red blood cells
  • Chloride: 110 to 125 mEq/L (110 to 125 mmol/L)
  • Fungus: None
  • Glucose: 50 to 80 mg/dL or 2.77 to 4.44 mmol/L (or greater than two-thirds of blood sugar level)
  • Glutamine: 6 to 15 mg/dL (410.5 to 1,026 micromol/L)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase: less than 40 U/L
  • Oligoclonal bands: 0 or 1 bands that are not present in a matched serum sample
  • Protein: 15 to 60 mg/dL (0.15 to 0.6 g/L)
  • Opening pressure: 90 to 180?mm of water
  • Myelin basic protein: Less than 4ng/mL

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.

What Abnormal Results Mean

An abnormal CSF analysis result may be due to many different causes, including:

  • Cancer
  • Encephalitis (such as West Nile and Eastern Equine)
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Reye syndrome
  • Meningitis due to bacteria, fungus, tuberculosis, or a virus
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Pseudotumor Cerebrii
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus

This article written by Madan Singh (Technical assistance, department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, CG.)

Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Common Cold

Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold: Cough and cold is a problem that comes with every changing season. Cough can be due to bacterial or viral infection, allergies or cold, to get rid of these problems,due to this, the problem of sore throat and flu also increases. Although, cough and cold can occur in any season, but it is not necessary to go to the doctor every time for these minor problems, because their treatment is present in our kitchen itself. Even today, many peoples rely only on the ingredients present in the kitchen when they have cold, cough and cold. These ingredients also provide many health benefits. There are many such home remedies in our kitchen, from which minor problems like cold-cough, cold-cough can be easily removed. There can be many reasons for suffering from a cold. Many people get cold due to change in weather, while many people also suffer from cold due to eating more cold things, living in moist environment. Usually people use allopathic medicine directly when they have a cold, but you can also treat cold with home remedies.

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Home Remedies for Common Cold

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Common Cold

Cold is also called Rhinitis or Nasopharyngitis. It is a disease caused by infection of the respiratory tract. In this the nose of the person is affected. Common cold is caused by virus infection. The most common cause of colds is rhinovirus infection. In cold, a person has to face problems like runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, nasal congestion.

Common Cold Symptoms

People have such problems in colds:-

  1. Runny nose
  2. Itching in Nose
  3. Sore throat
  4. Nasal congestion
  5. Headache and heaviness
  6. Burning eyes
  7. Cough
  8. Fever
  9. Sneeze

Common Cold Causes

It is caused by virus infection. More than two hundred viruses have been known to cause colds, but mainly the following two viruses are responsible for the common cold.

  1. Coronavirus (in 15-30 percent of cases)
  2. Rhinovirus (in 30-80 percent of cases

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Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

You can try these home remedies to cure a cold:-

Treatment of cold with the use of Turmeric and Milk: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

An essential ingredient found in almost all Indian kitchens, turmeric has a strong antioxidant which helps in treating many health problems. Turmeric mixed in warm milk is a popular and effective way to fight against cold and cough. Drinking a glass of warm turmeric milk before sleeping helps in faster recovery from cold and cough.

Haldi benefits for throat irritation

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In case of sore throat, taking 2-5 grams powder of Ajmoda, Turmeric, Yavakshar and Chitrak with one spoon of honey ends sore throat.

Treatment of cold with the use of Basil: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

  1. Basil gives fruit like nectar in cold. In case of cough and cold, make a decoction by grinding 5-7 leaves by putting them in water. Drink this decoction.
  2. When the nose is closed, sniffing the basil leaves in a handkerchief opens the nose and provides relief.
  3. In case of cold in young children, lick 6-7 drops of ginger and basil juice mixed with honey. It is helpful in both opening the blocked nose and preventing runny nose.
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Treatment of cold with the use of Fenugreek and flaxseed: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Take 3-4 grams of fenugreek and flaxseed and boil it in a glass of water. When it boils well, then put 3-4 drops of it in both the nostrils. It gives relief in cold.

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Treatment of cold with the use of Black Pepper: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

  1. Licking the powder of black pepper with honey provides relief in cold, and reduces runny nose.
  2. Mix half a teaspoon of black pepper powder and a teaspoon of sugar candy and drink it twice a day with a glass of warm milk.
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Treatment of cold with the use of Mustard Oil: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold 

While sleeping, put 2-2 drops of almond rogan or mustard oil in both the nostrils and sle

Ginger: Home Remedies for Common Cold
Boil ginger in milk and drink in phlegmatic cough.

Licking ginger juice mixed with honey also provides relief in cold.
Grind 1-2 small pieces of ginger, 2 black peppercorns, 4 cloves and 5-7 fresh basil leaves and boil them in a glass of water. When it boils down to half a glass, then add a spoonful of honey and drink it.
Roast small pieces of ginger in desi ghee and grind it 3-4 times a day. This gives relief from the problem of runny nose.

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Treatment of cold with the use Mixture of lemon, cinnamon and honey: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Mixture of lemon, cinnamon and honey

Another effective home remedy for common cold and cough is a mixture of lemon, cinnamon and honey. This syrup effectively cures cold and cough.

How to make the syrup: In half spoon of honey, add a few drop of lemon and a pinch of cinnamon. Have this syrup twice a day to cure common cold and cough.

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Home Remedies for Cold with Turmeric and carom seed (Ajwain) : Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Cook by adding ten grams of turmeric and ten grams of carom seeds in a cup of water. When the water remains half, add a little jaggery to it and drink it. This gives instant relief in cold and reduces watery nose.

Benefits of consuming ginger in winter (Ginger : Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Boil ginger in milk and drink it in cough with phlegm.

Licking ginger juice mixed with honey also provides relief in cold and flu.

Grind 1-2 small pieces of ginger, 2 black peppercorns, 4 cloves and 5-7 fresh basil leaves and boil them in a glass of water. When half a glass boils, add a spoonful of honey and drink it.

Roast small pieces of ginger in Native ghee and grind it 3-4 times a day.

It gives relief from the problem of runny nose.

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Garlic is beneficial in winter (Garlic: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Garlic contains a chemical called allicin, which is anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal.

It cures cold and flu infections.

For this, roast 4-5 garlic buds in ghee and eat it.

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Cow Ghee Benefits in Common Cold Treatment (Cow Ghee: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Melt pure Native ghee of cow and put 2 drops in the nose in the morning.

Do this regularly for three months. Chronic cold also gets cured.

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Raisin Benefits in Common Cold Treatment:Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Put 7-8 raisins in water and boil them.

When the water remains half, then take out the raisins and eat them, and drink the water.

This gives relief from the problem of runny nose.

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Honey and brandy Benefits in Common Cold Treatment: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Brandy is known to keep your chest warm as it increases body’s temperature and missing honey in brandy helps in fighting a cough.

Just a teaspoon of brandy mixed with few drops of honey improves cough and common cold.

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Other Home Remedies to Cure Common Cold: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

  • Take 4 grams each of dry ginger, small peepal Ficus religiosa) and small cardamom seeds and grind them with jaggery. Make small tablets of 1-1 grams of it. Taking one tablet at night with lukewarm water before going to bed cures cold.
  • If you are troubled by a runny nose, take a decoction of 5-5 grams root of absinthe, dry ginger, Aduse and Kateri and drink it.
  • Roasting the seeds of Kalonji on a griddle and wrapping it in a cloth gives relief by smelling it.
  • Eat half a teaspoon of cinnamon mixed with a teaspoon of honey.

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Your Diet in Common Cold Disease: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

During a cold, your diet should be like this:-

  • Lick half spoon powder of radish seeds with honey.
  • Eat ripe guava after roasting it lightly in the fire.
  • Eat cumin powder mixed with ghee and sugar. This reduces watery nose.
  • Grind nutmeg and mix a pinch of it in milk and drink it.
  • Mix equal quantity of jaggery, ghee and dry ginger. Heat it and take one teaspoonful at bedtime.
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Your Lifestyle for Common Cold Disease: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Your lifestyle during a cold should be like this:-

  • Do not take bath with cold water immediately after coming from hot environment.
  • AC Don’t sit in
  • Cold is a disease caused by infection, so wash your hands thoroughly before eating.
  • Walk with face mask in dusty and pollution-laden environment.
  • Do pranayama.
  • Do Bhastrika and Kapalbhati daily for about 10-15 minutes.
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Avoid these in Common Cold Disease: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Do not consume cold and spicy things at all.

  • Reduce the intake of curd and rice.
  • Cold drinks, ice cream, very cold water and things made of ice should not be eaten.
  • Do not eat stale food at all.
  • Do not consume junk food and oily food.
  • Eat seasonal fruits and vegetables.

Few precautionary measures in Common Cold Disease: Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

  • Avoid dairy products
  • Stay clear off caffeine
  • Do not eat spicy, processed and fried foods
  • Increase your fluid intake
  • Inhale steam
  • Take rest

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FAQ Related Common Cold

Why does a cold happen?

In Ayurveda, the cause of every disease is considered to be imbalance of doshas. In Ayurveda, cold is called Pratishyaya. The imbalance of vata and kapha dosha in your upper respiratory system leads to the problem of cold. If not treated properly, it becomes severe and painful.

How many days does a cold take to cure?

Common cold gets cured in 8-10 days with proper diet and home remedies. Its symptoms usually end within 6-10 days. Sometimes these symptoms can last up to 2 weeks. It is the most common infectious disease, occurring once or twice a year. Young children are more susceptible to infection, so it occurs more quickly in children.

When should a cold be considered serious?

If the cold lasts for more than 8-10 days, and the symptoms (sore throat and runny nose) become more severe, it can turn into a serious illness or sinusitis. In such a situation, a doctor should be contacted immediately.

What serious illness is a cold a symptom of?

If the cold persists for a long time, and nasal congestion or runny nose, headache, weakening of the sense of smell, then it can also be sinusitis. It is a serious disease different from the common cold. Sinusitis is mainly caused by pollution, smoking and infection. In this disease, there is inflammation and allergies on the inner surface of the sinus. This inflammation is caused by infection with bacteria or viruses.

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Thans for reading

Writer: Madan Singh

Rating: 1 out of 5.

Cold is also called Rhinitis or Nasopharyngitis. It is a disease caused by infection of the respiratory tract. In this the nose of the person is affected. Common cold is caused by virus infection. The most common cause of colds is rhinovirus infection. In cold, a person has to face problems like runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, nasal congestion.

Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

world population please

Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge, the rapid population growth rate in developing countries concerns the entire world because it will affect the quality of life of future generations, by placing more burdens on food production; creating greater demands on inadequate health care and education facilities; increasing unemployment; contributing to urban migration; accelerating the use of limited natural resources, which could restrict the earth’s ability to support life; and being conducive to civil unrest. Every day we add 227,000 more people to the planet — and the UN predicts human population will surpass 11 billion by the end of the century. As the world’s population grows, so do its demands for water, land, trees and fossil fuels — all of which come at a steep price for already endangered plants and animals.

Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

Rural Afghanistan has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world – some 638 women die per 100,000 live births. The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) supports a training programme for midwives, who work from UNFPA family health houses that provide the only medical services available in Afghanistan’s remotest and most difficult-to-reach areas.

Our growing population

In 1950, five years after the founding of the United Nations, world population was estimated at around 2.6 billion people. It reached 5 billion in 1987 and 6 billion in 1999.  In October 2011, the global population was estimated to be 7 billion. A global movement 7 Billion Actions was launched to mark this milestone. The world’s population is expected to increase by 2 billion persons in the next 30 years, from 7.7 billion currently to 9.7 billion in 2050 and could peak at nearly 11 billion around 2100.  

overpopulation India
Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

This dramatic growth has been driven largely by increasing numbers of people surviving to reproductive age, and has been accompanied by major changes in fertility rates, increasing urbanization and accelerating migration. These trends will have far-reaching implications for generations to come.

China and India: most populous countries

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

Sixty-one per cent of the global population lives in Asia (4.7 billion), 17 per cent in Africa (1.3 billion), 10 per cent in Europe (750 million), 8 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean (650 million), and the remaining 5 per cent in Northern America (370 million) and Oceania (43 million). China (1.44 billion) and India (1.39 billion) remain the two most populous countries of the world, both with more than 1 billion people, representing 19 and 18 per cent of the world’s population, respectively. Around 2027, India is projected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country, while China’s population is projected to decrease by 31.4 million, or arou

The world in 2100

screenshot 20190703 231307
Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

The world population is projected to reach 8.5 billion in 2030, and to increase further to 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. As with any type of projection, there is a degree of uncertainty surrounding these latest population projections. These figures are based on the medium projection variant, which assumes a decline of fertility for countries where large families are still prevalent, as well as a slight increase of fertility in several countries with fewer than two children per woman on average. Survival prospects are also projected to improve in all countries.

Africa: fastest growing continent

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

More than half of global population growth between now and 2050 is expected to occur in Africa. Africa has the highest rate of population growth among major areas. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is projected to double by 2050. A rapid population increase in Africa is anticipated even if there is a substantial reduction of fertility levels in the near future.  Regardless of the uncertainty surrounding future trends in fertility in Africa, the large number of young people currently on the continent, who will reach adulthood in the coming years and have children of their own, ensures that the region will play a central role in shaping the size and distribution of the world’s population over the coming decades.

Shrinking population in Europe

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

In sharp contrast, the populations of 55 countries or areas in the world are expected to decrease by 2050, of which 26 may see a reduction of at least ten per cent. Several countries are expected to see their populations decline by more than 15 per cent by 2050, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine. Fertility in all European countries is now below the level required for full replacement of the population in the long run (around 2.1 children per woman), and in the majority of cases, fertility has been below the replacement level for several decades. 

Factors influencing the population growth

Fertility rates

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

Future population growth is highly dependent on the path that future fertility will take. According to the World Population Prospects (2019 Revision), global fertility is projected to fall from 2.5 children per woman in 2019 to 2.2 in 2050. 

Increasing longevity 

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

Overall, significant gains in life expectancy have been achieved in recent years. Globally, life expectancy at birth is expected to rise from 72.6 years in 2019 to 77.1 years in 2050.  While considerable progress has been made in closing the longevity differential between countries, large gaps remain. In 2019, life expectancy at birth in the least developed countries lags 7.4 years behind the global average, due largely to persistently high levels of child and maternal mortality, as well as violence, conflict and the continuing impact of the HIV epidemic.

International migration

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

International migration is a much smaller component of population change than births or deaths. However, in some countries and areas the impact of migration on population size is significant, namely in countries that send or receive large numbers of economic migrants and those affected by refugee flows. Between 2010 and 2020, fourteen countries or areas will see a net inflow of more than one million migrants, while ten countries will see a net

The United Nations system has long been involved in addressing these complex and interrelated issues – notably, through the work of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the UN Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

UN Population Division

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

The UN Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs pulls together information on such issues as international migration and development, urbanization, world population prospects and policies, and marriage and fertility statistics. It supports UN bodies such as the Commission on Population and Development, and supports implementation of the Programme of Action adopted by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (IPCD).

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

The Population Division prepares the official United Nations demographic estimates and projections for all countries and areas of the world, helps States build capacity to formulate population policies, and enhances coordination of related UN system activities through its participation in the Committee for the Coordination of Statistical Activities.

UN Population Fund

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Population Explosion: World’s Biggest Challenge

The (UNUNFPA) started operations in 1969 to assume a leading role within the UN system in promoting population programs, based on the human right of individuals and couples to freely determine the size of their families. At the International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994), its mandate was fleshed out in greater detail, to give more emphasis to the gender and human rights dimensions of population issues, and UNFPA was given the lead role in helping countries carry out the Conference’s Program of Action. UNFPA now works in the areas of sexual and reproductive health, human rights and gender equality, population and development and has programs for youth.

On the issue of population, the United Nations has held three conferences, two special sessions of the General Assembly and a summit in 2019.

World Population Day is observed annually on 11 July. It marks the date, in 1987, when the world’s population hit the 5 billion mark.

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