Earthquakes kill over 4000 in Turkey and Syria

According NBS News

Early morning 7.8-magnitude quake was Turkey’s largest disaster since 1939, according to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

War-ravaged Syria must also deal with its consequences, threatening a new humanitarian crisis.

Latest on quakes that hit beleaguered region
A second 7.5-magnitude earthquake hit southeastern Turkey after the 7.8 temblor earlier Monday.
The quakes have claimed more than 3,700 lives in Turkey and northern Syria, and the toll is expected to rise on both sides of the border.
The early-morning 7.8-magnitude temblor was centered about 20 miles from Gaziantep, a major city and provincial capital in Turkey.
The first quake was Turkey’s largest disaster since 1939, according to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

The death toll in the massive earthquake that hit Turkey and Syria rose to 4000, according to officials in both countries.

In Turkey, at least 2,316 people were killed and 13,293 injured, with 6,217 buildings collapsed, according to the Disaster and Emergency Management Authority. Some 7,840 people have been rescued from the rubble.

In Syria, at least 656 people were killed with another 1,419 injured in affected areas, according to the Syrian Health Ministry. Some 700 people have died and 2,000 were injured in Syria’s rebel-held areas, according to the White Helmets.

Families who had so far managed to survive Syria’s decadelong civil war saw their already-battered homes come crashing down around them Monday.

Biden stands ready to offer ‘any and all’ assistance to NATO ally

U.S. President Joe Biden offered “any and all needed assistance” to Turkey in a call to Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Monday, according to a White House summary of the conversation.

“He noted that U.S. teams are deploying quickly to support Turkish search and rescue efforts and coordinate other assistance that may be required by people affected by the earthquakes, including health services or basic relief items,” the White House said.

The U.S. president also offered Erdogan his condolences on behalf of the American people.

Iraq, Qatar and Israel join relief effort

Iraq, Qatar and Israel offered aid in the form of supplies and personnel to earthquake victims Monday.

Israel pledged to deploy a military aid mission consisting of 150 people to Turkey. The military staff will include search and rescue teams and medics.

Iraq’s government said it would send search and rescue teams, first aid kits, fuel, tents, food, and water to both Syria and Turkey. Volunteers with Turkish visas have committed to travel as part of the relief efforts and a group of trucks supervised by the Iraqi Red Crescent has already reached the Turkish border, the government said.

Qatar’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs tweeted Monday that it is sending 10,000 mobile residences to both countries as part of its relief support.

Aftershocks as strong as Turkey’s 7.5-magnitude tremor are rare

The 7.5-magnitude tremor that struck Turkey on Monday after the 7.8-magnitude earthquake was an unusually strong aftershock, according to seismologists.

Aftershocks are typically about 1.2 magnitude units lower than the original quake, a statistical theory shows. But the jolt that hit Turkey just over nine hours after the initial earthquake was only 0.3 units smaller.

Seismologists said the 7.5-magnitude shake that came after the first quake qualified as an aftershock because it met aftershock classifications: It occurred within one fault line of the initial quake and was smaller in magnitude.

What will happen next is hard to predict. Dara Goldberg, a geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey, said many smaller aftershocks are still likely.

What will happen next is hard to predict. Dara Goldberg, a geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey, said many smaller aftershocks are still likely.

“As we start to see how this aftershock sequence shapes up, we’ll have better estimates of how long and how productive we expect this sequence to be,” Goldberg said. “But unfortunately, the reality is that there will certainly be aftershocks, and hopefully they don’t significantly hinder rescue efforts.”

Video shows two children rescued from building rubble after deadly earthquake in Turkey

UNICEF working to offer victims ‘psychological support, comfort, warmth’

James Elder, spokesman for UNICEF, said Monday that the aid group was mobilizing to provide earthquake victims with essentials.

In an interview with CNN, Elder said that there is an “enormous amount” to be done as resources are already overstretched in the region with freezing temperatures and a cholera outbreak.

The sudden and unexpected nature of an earthquake leaves families with little time to pack what they need, he added.

“You have a second to decide, and of course there is nothing to grab but your child,” Elder said. “And then they flee outside to nothing, to dust and to devastation, to screams from neighbors, so psychological support, comfort, warmth are absolutely essential.”

Residents retrieve an injured girl from the rubble of a collapsed building in Jandaris, Syria.

Syria’s U.N. ambassador requests humanitarian aid in meeting with U.N. secretary-general

Ambassador Bassam al-Sabbagh requested a mobilization of United Nations efforts and aid in the provision of health services, shelters and food supply across Syrian cities in a meeting with U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres.

“The secretary”We are requesting help from the U.N. members and from the United Nations Secretariat to help Syria in this devastating catastrophic situations, taking into consideration also that Syria had suffered a lot during the last 10 years,” al-Sabbagh said.-general expressed his condolences and solidarity with the people in the government of Syria,” al-Sabbagh said during a news conference.

Rose Day 2023 | Why is the first day of Valentine’s week special?

Happy Rose Day 2023

Rose Day 2023: Rose Day is celebrated every year on 7 February. On this day, couples make each other happy by giving roses of different colors and express their love. Know the history of the day and why this first day of Valentine’s Week is special.

Read Also: Complete calendar of Valentine’s Week for lovers, special things of 7 days

The first day of Valentine’s Week is Rose Day and on this special occasion, couples express their love by giving flowers to each other. Couples wait for the Romantic Week i.e. Valentine’s Week throughout the year and give each other roses or other flowers on February 7, Rose Day. Before Rose Day, red, white, pink and yellow flowers come in the market. On this special day, couples give roses to express their love and express their love.

Read Also : What is the significance of the color of the rose on Rose Day?

Do you know that some historical stories are also associated with Rose Day? Let us tell you the history of Rose Day and what special things you can do on this day.

Rose Day History

It is said that giving a rose can impress ‘she’ in a pinch or a flower can bring a smile on ‘her’ face. The history of Rose Day dates back to the Mughal period.

It is said that Mughal Begum Nur Jahan loved red roses so much that her husband used to send tons of flowers as a gift every day to please her. Her husband did everything possible to win Nur Jahan’s heart and sending roses was also a loving gesture on his part.

It is also said that at one time in the time of Queen Victoria, people started giving flowers to impress each other or to share feelings. Gradually this practice became popular among couples and since then lovers are seen giving flowers to each other.

Read Also: How To Proposing To Your Crush On The Valentine’s Day.

Each color flower has a different meaning

Red Roses

Red Roses symbolizes the appreciation of love and romance

“Red Roses are the most popular and quintessential Valentine’s Day gift” Red Rose is primarily a gift given to your beloved because of love, whether you are married or in a romantic.

It is common to give red roses to couples in love and married relationships. Because this flower is considered a symbol of expressing love to someone special.

Read Also: Why lovers celebrate Chocolate Day?

White Rose

White roses symbolize loyalty, purity, and innocence.

When there is a fight with someone, a white rose is given to celebrate it. It is considered a symbol of peace.

It might be best to save these beauties for a more somber moment. Usually associated with marriage and spirituality, they actually mean “a heart unrequited of love.”Because they represent these ideas, white roses have also become the most popular flower seen at weddings,” they can also symbolize eternal love, a new beginning, and new beginnings.

Read Also: 7 thoughts on “Your Love is Expressed only by Sitting on Your Knees, read how it started and what’s the proper manner”

Pink Rose

Pink is used to express gentleness, grace, gratitude, refinement, elegance and femininity pink rose Symbolizes the appreciation of love and romance.

Not only couples, other people can also celebrate Valentine’s Week. People can thank their parents by giving pink roses. By the way, girls also like pink rose very much.

The meaning of pink roses is gratitude and admiration. They’re the best choice for the people you love the most.

Read Also: Love of God-Saint Valentine / 3-Real Story of Valentine’s Day.

Yellow Rose

Most people give yellow roses to each other for their birthdays or to celebrate the love between two good friends, yellow roses symbolize of friendship, and yellow roses are universally known as a symbol of friendship.

Giving a yellow rose means that you want to extend a hand of friendship to someone. Apart from friendship, it is also considered a symbol of health.

Read Also: How To Proposing To Your Crush On The Valentine’s Day.

Orange Rose

Theorange roses symbolize that represent passion, enthusiasm, life, energy, excitement, and vigour.

The orange rose is a good example of fascination, enthusiasm, desire, and energy. The perfect gift for your loved one is orange roses because they symbolize admiration and excitement. Red roses are just as beautiful as orange ones. They are able to express love or deep-bond with someone. The meaning of orange roses is that they can be given to express love but not as red roses.

Read Also: All About Valentine’s Day 2023

Gree Rose

If both the petal and the stem acquire a green shade, then good news, The green rose symbolize of renewal, fertility and rejuvenation of the soul and energy, we say green means “constant rejuvenation of the soul.”

They are associated with abundance and prosperity. However, some people associate this color with jealousy and greed. Since flowers are beautiful and intended to be given as thoughtful gifts, we prefer to think that these are a symbol of freshness since green is the color of nature.

Read Also: Amazing Story Of True Love

Black Rose

In the language of flowers, roses have many different meanings. Black roses symbolize ideas such as hatred, despair, death or rebirth.

Black may not be the first color that comes to mind when celebrating love and friendship, but the black rose is actually a symbol of rebirth and new beginnings.

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Valentines Week | This is the complete calendar of Valentine’s Week for lovers, special things of 7 days

Valentine's Day 2023

Every young man and woman start preparing for Valentines Week, the symbol of love, as soon as the month of February arrives. The power of knowledge has already started a news series to give complete information about Valentine’s Week 2023. Under this, today we are telling you again in detail about Valentine’s Week 2023.

Like every year, Valentine’s Week is being celebrated from 7 February to 14 February 2023. This year, all the events related to Valentine’s Week 2023, you were looking for the list and calendar of all these events, then we have brought for you the complete today’s article where you will get complete information. Because today here you will get all that about Valentine’s Week 2023, which you were expecting and searching on the net.. Before celebrating Valentine’s Day, the whole week is special for lovers. Every day a special day is celebrated. So let’s know the complete schedule of Valentine’s Day 2023…

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Love of God-Saint Valentine / 3-Real Story of Valentine’s Day

Rose Day

Rose Day - 7th February 2023
Rose Day – 7th February 2023

The symbol of love, Valentine’s Week begins on 7 February with Rose Day. On this day every lover tries to win each other’s heart by presenting roses to his girlfriend and every girlfriend to her lover to express and maintain their love. Rose is considered a symbol of beauty and love, so rose flowers are exchanged on these days. Rose flower is considered a good way of expressing love. Rose represents love and its passion. Now you have also come to know the importance of Rose Day, so what is the delay, you are also ready. Go to give roses on this Rose Day.

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Rose Day 2023,Happy Rose Day!

Propose Day


Propose Day is celebrated on February 8, the next day of Rose Day. If you want to take your love as your life partner or ask him to be your life partner, then this day is considered very auspicious for you. New lovers eagerly wait for this day and propose their boyfriend and girlfriend and choose them for life, in fact love begins on this day because on this day the proposal has to be accepted and consented.

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How To Proposing To Your Crush On The Valentine’s Day

Chocolate Day

Chocolate Day
Chocolate Day 2023

The third day of Valentine’s Week is celebrated as Chocolate Day on February 9. After expressing love on Propose Day, on this day, by lovingly giving a box of chocolates or any chocolate to your lover, try to take forward the love because it is believed that like chocolate, there should be sweetness in the relationship too. The tradition of sharing chocolates is considered a way of strengthening the relationship.

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Why lovers celebrate Chocolate Day?

Teddy Day

Teddy Day
Teddy Day

Teddy Day is celebrated on February 10, the next day of Chocolate Day. Teddy is considered the most beautiful and symbol of tenderness, on this day you can gift a teddy bear to your lover. If your lover liked the teddy and hugged it, then understand that there is strength in your relationship and both are trying to understand each other’s feelings.

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Amazing Story Of  True Love

Promise Day

Valentine's Day is commonly celebrated
Promise Day

Promise Day is celebrated on February 11, the fifth day of Valentine’s Week. On this day you can make a good promise with your love partner. betrayal I nlove
Otherwise, you will be sworn on this day that you will never cheat, in fact, Promise Day is a way of making a contract with your life partner, trusting which both plan their future life.

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Express your Love to them,this Valentine’s Day before it’s too late

Hug Day

Hug Day:  Sunday,12 February 2023
Hug Day:  Sunday,12 February 2023

Hug Day is celebrated on February 12, the next day of Promise Day in Valentine’s Week. On this day everyone has a chance to come closer to their lover and girlfriend. After the promise, on this day if your love partner agrees to be yours for life, then you can take him/her in your embrace. Hugging someone with affection is a very beautiful way of giving love. It provides an opportunity to come close to each other and reassure them.

Read Also

All About Valentine’s Day 2023

Kiss Day

Kiss Day :  Monday,13 February 2023
Kiss Day :  Monday,13 February 2023

Kiss Day is celebrated on February 13, the seventh day of Valentine’s Week. On Kiss Day, you can provide more depth to your relationship. In this you get a chance for • kissing commitment and intimacy. In fact, along with communication of affection, the bond between your love partner and your partner becomes even stronger.

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Valentine’s Day

Valentine’s Day 2023

Valentine’s Day is celebrated on the last day of Valentine’s Week i.e. 14 February 2023. This is the most romantic day. On this day you get a lot of opportunity for romance and love. Celebrating Valentine’s Day on the last day of Valentine’s Week, you can have an unforgettable gift or a romantic lunch or dinner for your lover. If you get a chance, you can go for a trip to some beautiful place to make it more interesting and memorable.

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7 thoughts on “Your Love is Expressed only by Sitting on Your Knees, read how it started and what’s the proper manner”

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World’s oldest Dog | Oldest Dog in The World |Bobi breaks Guinness World Record for oldest dog ever

The dog made two records simultaneously for its age

Dog babi is more than 30 years old

Lisbon, Agency: A dog from Portugal has made two records together for its longevity.

Guinness World Records said that by February 1, this dog named Babi was 30 years 266 days old.

The first record is for the oldest living dog, which he snatched from a dog named Spike of Ohio, who is 23 years old.

Apart from this, Babi has also made the all-time record for the highest age.

Till now this record was in the name of Australia’s dog Blue.

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The Composition of Blood

Father’s Sacrifice for Son | A Story of Father

When a man was about forty-five years old, his wife died. People advised for second marriage but he refused saying that I have a gift given by my wife in the form of a son, because of this my whole life will be spent well.

When the son became an adult, he handed over all the business to the son. Sometimes he himself used to spend time sitting in the office of his friends.

He became even more determined after his son’s marriage. The whole house was handed over to the daughter-in-law.

About a year after the son’s marriage, we were having dinner in the afternoon, the son had also come from the office to have lunch and was preparing to eat after washing his hands and face.

He heard that the father asked the daughter-in-law for curd along with the food, then the daughter-in-law replied that there is no curd in the house today. Papa went to office after having food.

After some time the son sat down to eat with his wife. There was also a cup full of curd in the food. The son did not answer and went to the office himself after having food.

After a few days the son said to his father – “Papa, today you have to go to court, you are going to get married today.”

The father looked at the son with surprise and said- “Son, I don’t need a wife and I love you so much that maybe you don’t even need a mother, then why second marriage?”

The son said, ‘Father, I am neither bringing a mother for myself nor a wife for you.
*I am arranging curd for you only.*

From tomorrow I will stay with your daughter-in-law in a rented house and take salary as an employee in your office so that your daughter-in-law can know the price of curd.

*-Parents for us*
*ATM card can be made,*

So we for them
* Identity card can be made.

Read More

1. Crane and Jackal

2. Rare Emperor Tamarin Monkey Missing

3. Monkey and Bayal Preaching to a fool does its own harm


Monkey and Baya| Preaching to a fool does its own harm

A Baya used to live on a tree. She lived a comfortable life in her nest.

A monkey also lived on that tree.

He used to sleep here and there without a home.

One day it rained a lot.

The monkey was feeling sad because of the cold wind.

He was completely drenched.

Story: Monkey and Baya

Baya sat hiding in her nest.

The rain had no effect on him.

After the rain ended, Baya explained to the monkey and said – “Monkey brother.

Story: Monkey and Baya

If you had built a house like me, you would not have got wet in the rain like this today, nor would you have been in bad condition in the cold.

If you believe me, you too Build a house and start living like a human being.”

The monkey listened to Baya.

He felt Baya teasing him.

The monkey turned red with anger.

In no time, he broke Baya’s nest as well.

While teasing her, he said, “The elder has come to explain to me.

Now I will see where you live.

” Baya saw her nest being destroyed.

She was left after drinking a sip of blood.

At last Baya said to the monkey once again – Monkey brother! I will make my nest again.

Story: Monkey and Baya

Yes, I have got a lesson that ‘convincing a fool leads to one’s own loss.

We should explain to someone who is sensible. Saying this, Baya flew away from that tree and started living far away by building a nest on another tree.

Education: Preaching to a fool does its own harm.

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Rare Emperor Tamarin Monkey Missing

Two rare emperor tamarin monkeys went missing from the zoo in Dallas, the largest city in the US state of Texas.

The zoo administration has released this picture.

Emperor monkeys are white moustaches.

It is believed that they are named after the German Emperor Wilhelm II.

His mustache was also like this.

Rare Monkey Missing

Crane and Jackal | Tit for Tat

Story : Crane and Jackal

It was a long time ago that a crane and a jackal lived together in a forest. Both of them used to talk about happiness and sorrow together, they were good friends, but both of them did not get along with each other. The jackal was very clever and stingy, he knew how to take things from others. Being selfish, he did not like to give something to anyone from his side. One day when both of them were talking together, they made a plan to go to each other’s house and have a meal. The jackal first invited the stork to his house for a meal.

The jackal knew how to eat but not how to feed. He thought what kind of thing should I make which tastes good and cannot be eaten. She thought of making kheer. Because kheer will look good and the stork will not be able to eat it easily. The next day the stork came to his friend’s house. He looked very happy because of his innocent nature. The jackal was very clever. Seeing the stork coming home, he started talking smooth to keep him happy. At the time of the meal, he invited the stork friend to the feast. The jackal deliberately served kheer in a wide plate. Both the friends started eating kheer. The jackal kept eating kheer with great pleasure and praised his kheer as well. Sometimes the stork would look at its beak and sometimes it would look at the kheer served on the plate. Kheer did not come in the beak of the stork. He kept on repenting after eating each and every grain of rice. On the other hand, the jackal himself ate all the kheer with pleasure.

The stork wanted to teach the jackal a lesson. The next day, when the jackal came to blow the feast, the stork also welcomed him with great love. At the time of the meal, the stork served kheer in a long and tight-necked jug and said – Come brother, the food is ready. You like kheer, don’t eat it with pleasure. The stork put its long beak in the jug and kept on praising the rice pudding with pleasure. The jackal’s mouth could not go into the jug. Sometimes he would look at the kheer lying in the jug and sometimes he would regret his actions. He left from there feeling ashamed. You will fill the district as you do.

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7 Marvels of US | Wonders of America

The length of this material is at the circumspection of The Force of Information’s creator, and doesn’t be guaranteed to mirror the perspectives on The Force of Information or its article staff.

For the most reliable and exceptional data, counsel the singular reference book passages about the subjects. This is our proposal to you.

Kids’ tests have begun all over, after that a long get-away will come and a considerable lot of you should have proactively made occasion arrangements. With so many objective choices, how would you choose where to go? For some families, that decision is many times one of America’s Public Parks.

While it will make an imprint on your mind that is certain to be considered as a part of your brilliant minutes, U.S.

The public authority keeps many public parks, landmarks, amusement regions and verifiable locales that are visited by a huge number of individuals every year, and you can as well.

Read more

Laverne & Shirley’ actor Cindy Williams dies at 75

Cindy Williams, who played Shirley opposite Penny Marshall’s Laverne on the popular sitcom “Laverne & Shirley,” has died, her family said Monday.

Williams died in Los Angeles at age 75 on Wednesday after a brief illness, her children, Zak and Emily Hudson, said in a statement released through family spokeswoman Liza Cranis.

Cindy Williams, aka Shirley Feeney from Laverne and Shirley, has passed at 75

passing of our kind, hilarious mother, Cindy Williams, has brought us insurmountable sadness that could never truly be expressed,” the statement said. “Knowing and loving her has been our joy and privilege. She was one of a kind, beautiful, generous and possessed a brilliant sense of humor and a glittering spirit that everyone loved.”

Williams also starred in director George Lucas’ 1973 film “American Graffiti” and director Francis Ford Coppola’s “The Conversation” from 1974.

But she was by far best known for “Laverne & Shirley,” the “Happy Days” spinoff that ran on ABC from 1976 to 1983 that in its prime was among the most popular shows on TV.

Laverne & Shirley’ starring Penny Marshall & Cindy Williams premiered 47 years ago, January 27, 1976, on ABC

Marshall’s more libertine Laverne on the show about a pair of roommates that worked at a Milwaukee bottling factory in the 1950s and 60s.

“Laverne & Shirley” was known almost as much for its opening theme as the show itself. Williams’ and Marshall’s chant of “schlemiel, schlimazel” as they skipped together became a cultural phenomenon and oft-invoked piece of nostalgia.

People tweeted and paid tribute

The hollywood reporte says : Cindy Williams, the energetic actress who appeared in a pair of Oscar best picture nominees before starring as the idealistic Shirley Feeney on ‘Laverne & Shirley,’ has died. She was 75

Tribute to Cindy Williams from our team ” the power of knowledge “

Philadelphia Eagles 31, 49ers 7

The Philadelphia  Eagles  defeated  the  San  Francisco  49ers 7 in the playoffs to  advance  to the  Super  Bowl  where  they  will  face  the winner of the  Cincinnati  or  Kansas City game.

Don’t forget to  read  below  to  see  how  the  game  unfolded.

Game Recap: Eagles 31, 49ers 7

Tensions are  high  as  Trent Williams and  K’Von  Wallace ejected

The 49ers’ frustration  has erupted.

After  a  6-yard  run  by  Christian  McCaffrey,  a  scrum  ensued  at  midfield  that culminated in  K’Von  Wallace  and  Trent  Williams throwing  punches  that resulted in  both  players  being  ejected.

Safety  Reed  Blankenship  forced  a  Deebo  Samuel  fumble  and  recovered it as  play resumed.

The  Eagles  start  to  pull starters and  extend  lead  to 31-7.

After a turnover on downs, the Eagles went to the ground with eight consecutive runs

All by Kenneth Gainwell – to set up a 31-yard Jake Elliott field goal with 5:17 remaining in the game.

All-Pro tackle Lane Johnson was pulled off the Eagles by the Eagles before the drivedrive, Left guard Landon Dickerson left  with an undisclosed injury after leaving the field.

Avonte Maddox and Fletcher Cox stop 49ers on fourth down.

After being  down  28-7  early  in  the  fourth  quarter, the 49ers  went  for  it  on  4th-and-2  from  their  own 47, after going for it on 4th-and-2.
Wide  receiver  Deebo  Samuel  took  the  handoff  and  was  swarmed  by  Fletcher  Cox  and  Avonte  Maddox  for  a  loss  of  4  with  10:52 remaining  in  the game, with  quarterback  Brock  Purdy  unable  to  throw  due  to  his  elbow  injury  and  Josh  Johnson  officially  out  with  a concussion.

Eagles  extend  lead  to  28-7  as  Jalen  Hurts  gets  going  on  the field.

the 49ers’ offense limited by Brock Purdy’s elbow injury, the Eagles nursed the ball  for a 15-play, 91-yard drive that lasted 7:50  and ended with a quarterback sneak by Jalen  Hurts to make it 28-7 with 43 seconds remaining in the third quarter.
bonus. On the 49ers, a roughing the kicker penalty extended the drive, then  Hurts ran for 12 yards, 2 yards, and 14 yards on consecutive plays. after 49ers safety Talanoa Hufanga pushed Hurts after being out of bounds, giving  the third play  a bonus.

The Eagles’ fourth  rushing  touchdown set  a single-game playoff record.
Hurts scored  his  15th  rushing  touchdown  of  the  season,  including  playoffs, and  the  most  by  a  quarterback  in  NFL  history.

Josh  Johnson was called  out  of  the  game  by  the referees, but  Brock Purdy was reinstated

Defensive  tackle  Ndamukong  Suh  knocked  quarterback  Josh  Johnson  to  the ground on the first  drive  of  the  third quarter.

Johnson had  to  be  evaluated  for  a  head injury, according to the referees. Brock  Purdy  re-entered  the  game  for  the  first  time  since  the  49ers’ first  drive.

49ers vs. Eagles | NFC Championship


U19T20WorldCup : Women’s T20 World Cup 2023 FinalWomen’s T20 World Cup 2023 Final

India U19 vs England U19 Highlights, Women’s T20 World Cup 2023 Final: India Women beat England Women by 7 wickets to be crowned winners of the inaugural Women’s Under-19 T20 World Cup. IND-W chased down a modest target of 69 runs after ENG-W were bowled out for 68. India lost both openers – captain Shafali Verma and leading run-scorer Shweta Sehrawat early in their chase against England Women but Soumya Tiwari and Gongadi Trisha kept the score moving. In the end, it was Tiwari who hit the winning runs to trigger euphoria among the Indian camp. Earlier, Titas Sadhu, Archana Devi and Parshavi Chopra grabbed 2 wickets each, while Mannat Kashyap, Shafali Verma and Soman Yadav picked one each to dismiss ENG-W for a low total. Only 4 ENG-W batters could enter double digits with Rayana Macdonald-Gay top scoring with 19. India headed into the finals after a thumping victory over New Zealand, whom they defeated by eight wickets. England, on the other hand, defeated Australia in a low-scoring encounter.

Congratulations poured in on Twitter

Ashok Gehlot says on Twitter: Heartiest congratulations to Team India for scripting history and winning their first U19 Women’s T20 World Cup Title! Captain Shefali Verma’s team has brought glory to the nation. We are very proud of India’s daughters! #U19T20WorldCup

INDIAN DEAF CRICKET ASSOCIATION SAYS : The nation is proud of you girls! Superbly done Women’s #U19T20WorldCup 🇮🇳🇮🇳#Champions @BCCI @ICC @JayShah @BCCIWomen

WomensCricCraze Says : Australia’s Maggie Clark was the top wicket taker in the tournament🔥

Here are the other top wicket takers from the ICC U19 T20 World Cup 2023👇

Narendra Modi : Congratulations to the Indian Team for a special win at the @ICC #U19T20WorldCup. They have played excellent cricket and their success will inspire several upcoming cricketers. Best wishes to the team for their future endeavours.

Sachin Tendulkar : Indian women’s cricket is on the up! First the announcement of the #WPL & now the #U19T20WorldCup win.

Congratulations to the entire women’s team on winning the inaugural U19 World Cup.

This win will inspire a whole generation to take up sports.

Mitoma’s magical winner for Brighton delivers knockout blow to Liverpool

According to The Guardian : Mitoma’s magical winner for Brighton delivers knockout blow to Liverpool

Just when Jürgen Klopp thought that things could not get any worse for his Liverpool team and, especially, here on the south coast. When they were last here two weeks ago, the 3-0 Premier League defeat was, to paraphrase the manager, a historic low. Klopp could not remember a worse performance by one of his teams, Liverpool’s traumatic season suffering one of its deepest cuts.

Mitoma’s magical winner for Brighton delivers knockout blow to Liverpool

It was a big reason why this FA Cup tie mattered so much. And yet from a position of strength, a goal to the good through Harvey Elliott, they were reeled in by a Brighton team that are attracting fresh superlatives from week to week.

Lewis Dunk had scored for 1-1 before half-time and it was Brighton who pushed in the final 20 minutes of the second half, sensing vulnerability in a Liverpool team which has been exactly that all season. It looked as though Liverpool would hang on. Alisson had denied the outstanding Solly March while Ibrahima Konate had thrown himself into a block to keep out Evan Ferguson.

Liverpool got away with a few, not least a challenge from Konaté on Alexis Mac Allister that looked like a last-man foul. The substitute Fabinho was horribly late on Ferguson – escaping with a yellow card; the 18-year-old forced off in obvious distress – while Andy Robertson was also booked for a bad one on Mac Allister.

How Brighton made him pay. From the free-kick, Pervis Estupiñan – in space beyond the far post – sent the ball back across and, after substitute Deniz Undav had tussled with Robertson, there was Kaoru Mitoma to pull it down. What followed was a blur of technical brilliance, the winger coming inside with a right-footed touch and then, with the same boot, picking out the far, top corner.

Lewis Dunk celebrates after diverting Tariq Lamptey’s shot past Alisson to score Brighton’s equaliser. Photograph: Andrew Powell/Liverpool FC/Getty Images

There would be a VAR check for an offside against Estupiñán and, when he was ruled on, the roars could have been heard in Liverpool. Brighton march on. The holders are out.

Brighton had been portrayed as the pre-match favorites in some quarters and that probably talked to what happened here the last time. But it reflected the broader trajectories of both clubs, with Brighton’s alchemy nothing short of extraordinary.

Since the start of the season, they have lost their manager and most of the coaching staff, important recruiting personnel, their biggest-name defender, main midfielder, top scorer and a key creator. It looks as though their star winger is on his way, too; there was no sign of Moisés Caicedo, as expected, as Arsenal and Chelsea circle. And they’ve gotten better.

Liverpool wanted to change the narrative and Mohamed Salah was in the mood from the first whistle. He got in off at the right time and again and it was his run and pass that sliced Brighton apart for Elliott’s breakthrough goal. The home team cannot say they were not warned.

Salah’s first attempts had come early on. He had a shot blocked by Adam Webster and, on the rebound, it opened up for him again. This time, Brighton were saved by a stretching clearance on the goalline by Dunk. Salah really should have scored on 25 minutes. Elliott played the final pass and it was a beauty, releasing Salah in behind the Brighton backline only for him to drag past the far post.

Brighton might have led first themselves and they played a full part in a lively first half. Their confidence on the ball was pronounced; first-time passes and flicks on point, movements quick and incisive. Tariq Lamptey and Estupiñán were under orders to bomb forward from the full-back positions and, with Danny Welbeck up front alongside Ferguson, it was a bold, can-do approach from Roberto De Zerbi

March, who is in the form of his life, crossed low from the right and, after Welbeck had somehow failed to convert, Ferguson took a touch and unloaded. Trent Alexander-Arnold was on the line to clear, with Alisson beaten. Mitoma, so impressive on the other flank, went close after swapping passes with Ferguson.

Liverpool menaced on the break, Brighton’s interventions sometimes a little last-ditch, and Elliott’s goal followed a clearance from Naby Keïta to Salah. Elliott timed the run in behind, Salah’s pass was perfect and the finish found the far corner, via the fingertips of Jason Steele.

Brighton deserved to be level at the interval, the equaliser following a low Lamptey blast after Alexander-Arnold had half-cleared. It was going wide until Dunk touched instinctively towards goal, wrong-footing Alisson. Lamptey was all-action and it was his saving tackle that kept out Elliott just before half-time. Cody Gakpo, playing in the No 9 role, had released him; Elliott’s second touch took him too close to Lamptey.

Klopp watched Dunk wobble a free-kick wide after the restart and Pascal Gross lifted high. The Liverpool manager made a triple change – James Milner, Jordan Henderson and Darwin Núñez on; Alexander-Arnold, one of those to make way, looking distinctly unhappy.

Gakpo, who continued through the middle, with Núñez to the left, was cynically pulled back by Dunk after a jet-heeled burst – the Brighton captain was booked while, moments earlier, Salah had almost got on to a Milner cross.

Brighton’s first thought in possession was to get forward. It left a few gaps at the back but they did not care. They backed themselves to trouble Liverpool’s defence and, amid mounting pressure towards the end, they did so.

The Power of Knowledge

Realme 10 Pro Hyperspace 8GB Ram complete review

To help our readers understand how Realme 10 pro 8GB works, we have used this smartphone for almost 28 Day’s and now we can share our review with you. To begin with we ordered this smartphone from Flipkart in the month of December. The overall experience was good with Flipkart as we got the phone within 2 days of placing the order. As it was an open box delivery, the guy who came to deliver it, first opened the box in front of us. As a lot of users have shared some pictures in the past where instead of a phone there was something else. But this didn’t happen with us.

Here is our 28 Day’s experience with the Realme 10 Pro Hyperspace 8GB Ram

To begin with, we received the product with a charger cable along with the charger itself. While most of the big companies have restrained from giving the chargers. We were amazed to see how Realme is providing chargers along with the cable.

Secondly, we received a transparent back cover to protect the back of this phone. The overall packaging of this smartphone was neat and the yellow color looked quite nice if you ask us.

Camera Review

The picture quality of this smartphone is really nice and definitely does justice to selfies also. The phone comes with a 108 MP back camera along with a 16 MP selfie camera. You can do a 6X zoom with its rear camera and still the picture quality is decent, if we compare it with its price range of under Rs 21,000.

Battery Review

We took the charge to utilize the battery of this phone and tried to drain it. However, it took around 2 days for the battery to drain if we do normal work or simply browse the internet. Another important thing we noticed is the charging, as this phone comes with 33W wired charging. And as the company advertises that the phone will get a complete charge in 30 minutes, we tested it and yes it does charge 50% within 20-25 minutes.

Design Review

Once you have the back cover that comes along with this smartphone, it will look quite big. The phone is a bit lighter without the cover that is what we felt.

Overall Experience
The overall experience that we have with the phone is good. The processing speed of this phone is really good as it comes with an expandable Ram option. As we have the 8GB Ram variant we increased the virtual Ram to 12GB. However, it took a good amount of time for us to know how to restart this phone. To restart you need to hold down the lock button along with the volume up button. And once you restart this phone it will take a good amount of time.

The design and layout are good

Camera Quality is good

Sound is good

Charging and battery life are good

No overheating of the phone while charging

Takes a good time to restart

The phone is a bit heavy if you have the cover on

The Power of Knowledge

People also askIs Realme 10 worth buying?

No, the RealMe 10 Pro 5G is not worth buying because its a straight-up re-brand of the RealMe 9 Pro 5G, RealMe has just charged the design while the processor is the same, cameras are downgraded, plastic build, LCD panel, and still, they’re charging Rs 18999 which is not justifiable at all. 11 5G Bands.

Is Realme 10 worth buying?
No, the RealMe 10 Pro 5G is not worth buying because its a straight-up re-brand of the RealMe 9 Pro 5G, RealMe has just charged the design while the processor is the same, cameras are downgraded, plastic build, LCD panel, and still, they’re charging Rs 18999 which is not justifiable at all. 11 5G Bands.

Does Realme 10 Pro support 5G?
About the Mobile Phone. Realme 10 Pro has a display with a resolution of 6.72 inches that is FHD+ and has a refresh rate of 120Hz. The Qualcomm Snapdragon 695 5G CPU is responsible for the Realme 10 Pro’s operation, while Android 13 is its operating system.

Hair is falling after 28, stop it like this

It has been seen that between the age of 28 people start losing hair, if you are also one of those people, then here we are telling some tricks, by adopting this you can save your hair from falling, so we discuss today the topic of Hair is falling after 28, stop it like this.

Hair is falling after 28

Along with health, the effect of increasing age also starts on hair. At the same time, hair fall and breakage starts in many people at an early age.

Hair is falling after 28:

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Affects Of Depression on our Daily life

Protein is not only important for our body, but protein is also very important for hair. That’s why eggs and protein rich foods must be consumed.

Hair cutting: Hair is falling after 28

To keep the hair healthy, the length of the hair can be kept short. If your hair is constantly falling, these tips for hair fall can be very useful for you.

To make the hair strong, it is very important for the scalp to be healthy. The scalp of the hair can also get damaged due to dandruff.

Hair is falling: shampoo less in hair

Even if you use more shampoo to wash your hair, your hair can become weak. That’s why shampoo less in hair.

Hair is falling: Stay away from stress

To prevent hair fall, it is most important that you remain stress free. The more you stay away from stress, the better.

Hair is falling: Daily hair massage can solve your hair problems


Is drinking alcohol good for your health? How It Affects Your Heart, Liver, Weight And Cancer Risk

Daily hair massage can solve your hair problems. This will not only strengthen your hair but can also get rid of hair breakage and fall.

Hair is falling: Consume avocado, nuts, eggs, berries, spinach, fish, seeds

If you consume avocado, nuts, eggs, berries, spinach, fish, seeds then you can get rid of hair problem.

Hair is falling: Before adopting anything, do consult a doctor

The information given here is based on home remedies and general information. Before adopting anything, do consult a doctor.

Thanks for reading

10 US College Towns Worth Visiting Even If You Don’t Have a Kid There

Name an attraction or town close to home that you still haven’t got around to visiting.

10 US College Towns Worth Visiting Even If You Don’t Have a Kid There

From college towns to culture, hospitality, and quintessential American charm, there’s plenty to offer, whether you’re a football fan, an art enthusiast, or always in search of a charming, new city to explore.

If you want to take a day trip from your favorite major city, the following destinations are a good choice.
There are many delightful college towns in the U.S.

Some of the best for their beauty, picturesque town dotted with local businesses and amenities beyond the campus boundaries

10. Cambridge, Massachusetts

Boulder, Colorado

Cambridge, home of Harvard University and MIT, is just outside Boston and one of the many attractions that will keep you coming back for more.

Modica Way, the Charles River Bike Path, and the Ray and Maria Strata Center for the Suggestive Arts are all within walking distance of Harvard Square and the Yards.

Chef Michael Scelfo has several drinking and dining outposts

9 . Athens, Georgia

Athens, Georgia

Athens is a two-hour drive from Atlanta and boasts an impressive arts and music scene, a fabulous roster of restaurants and cocktail bars, and a wealth of small-town charm.

You’ll want to check out the city’s famous music venues after a win and then eat a traditional Southern breakfast at Mama’s Boy on Sunday morning.

the only university in america
The University of Virginia is trying to obtain UNESCO World Heritage Site designation.

8. Charlottesville, Virginia

Charlottesville, Virginia

The region has a thriving wine scene that can be traced back to Thomas Jefferson’s desire to produce Old World varieties at his famous residence, Monticello.

From spring to early winter, it’s a great place for golfers, art enthusiasts, and hikers.

7. Berkeley, California

Berkeley, California

Home of UC Berkeley, the slow food movement and a vibrant arts and culture scene, this Bay Area college town deserves a long weekend planned around the city’s calendar of theatre, music and events.

If you decide to visit, be sure to stop at the city’s diverse museums, such as the Aftel Archive of Curious Saints and the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, in between strolling Telegraph Avenue and sampling local goodies in The Gourmet Ghetto Do it.

6. Oxford, Mississippi

Oxford, Mississippi

Fans of American fiction and football should visit Oxford.

You can explore the surrounding town, from Faulker’s historic home to live literary radio show broadcasts on Off Square Books.

You can learn all about Oxford’s quirky history while sitting on a double-decker bus.

You’ll find delicious Southern food and hospitable people all weekend long.

5. Burlington, Vermont

Burlington, Vermont

If the network were more progressive, this charming New England town would be a different place.

The town is built around spectacular views of Lake Champlain and the Adirondacks and is lit up with string lights.

Home to the University of Vermont and Champlain College, it has an incredible dining scene that highlights the city’s role as a refuge, and you can’t miss the local brewpubs and natural wine found in the area.

Don’t worry, there are plenty of ways to keep you active in the city while you eat Nepali momos and vermontipas.

4. Ann Arbor, Michigan

Ann Arbor, Michigan

Home of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor is much more than the site of yet another football powerhouse.

It’s an art and food lover’s paradise, with an eclectic mix of renowned institutions (yes, you have to visit Zingerman’s Deli while you’re here) and historic places to watch indie films and hear up-and-coming folk singers.

Be sure to come in the summer to experience the Ann Arbor Art Fair, one of the largest in the US, as well as all the natural wonders around.

3. Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Affectionately referred to as “Title Town” by students and alumni, Tuscaloosa is a classic Southern college town located about an hour from Birmingham.

While attending a football game at the University of Alabama’s Bryant-Denny Stadium is a reason in itself, the city is also home to widely acclaimed restaurants, including fresh seafood, an impressive concert calendar at the amphitheater, and a killer coffee shop Is. Makes it well worth a springtime getaway.

2. Ithaca, New York

Ithaca, New York

Especially home to Cornell University and Ithaca College, this postcard-perfect city in the Finger Lakes is filled with natural beauty.

Visit in autumn to experience the changing leaves at their best among waterfalls and rocks within the region’s many beautiful state parks.

Ithaca is also home to several excellent museums and galleries if you’re looking for a more intellectually stimulating weekend getaway that will make you feel like an Ivy League grad.

1. Boulder, Colorado

Boulder, Colorado

The University of Colorado-Boulder is the most popular college in the Boulder area.

From a thriving downtown filled with independent eating places, bars, and shops to a variety of outdoor activities in Chautauqua, you’ll regret not making this town your personal home for 4 years or more after the entire college town has to offer . Park, Boulder Creek Path and ski slopes nearby.

Needless to mention, it is a year-round destination.

I hope you guys have liked this article of mine, if you are satisfied with my article, please encourage us by commenting.

Madan Singh

Is drinking alcohol good for your health? How It Affects Your Heart, Liver, Weight And Cancer Risk

Is drinking alcohol good for your health? Experts clearly warn that drinking alcohol is injurious to health. Let’s talk about what it does to the major parts of your body and aspects of your health.

Some studies suggest that red wine is good for certain health factors, while others suggest avoiding alcohol altogether. what is true let’s discuss it

For most people, the holidays mean either holiday cocktails, bubbly champagne, and red wine galore. Now, since many of us are starting to feel weak in our willpower in regards to Dry January, the question begs: Can alcohol ever be good for you? If possible then how? Have you become used to it?

There is no doubt that drinking alcohol carries risks. The government even issues statutory warnings for this. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US notes that alcohol consumption increases many health concerns including high blood pressure, cancer, car accidents, violence and more.

According to the latest guidelines from the US Department of Health, up to two drinks per day for men and up to one drink per day for women is considered safe. More alcohol than this can be harmful to health, no matter how good the quality. There is also some evidence that red wine may be good for your heart, and studies have also shown that moderate drinking Consumption is associated with longevity. You must have enjoyed reading this, but wait, the article is not over yet.

Can Alcohol Ever Be Good For You, Says The Expert? This question is a complicated one, so gird up your loins now – and be prepared to give up “half a bottle of wine” for a good night’s worth. Below, read our article on how alcohol can affect your heart, your weight, your liver and your cancer risk.

Is drinking alcohol good for your health?

how alcohol affects your heart

First things first: Is alcohol good for your heart? The short answer to this question is that “this belief stems from the ‘French Paradox’, where observations from the 1990s showed that despite similar intakes of saturated fat intake, blood pressure and tobacco use in populations there The risk of dying from heart disease was lower.” The French consumed more red wine, and this suggested a possible link between wine and heart health. But “in reality, it’s not clear whether there is a direct causal link between the two.” The effect is relationship,” or if “other factors are involved such as reduced stress from a healthier lifestyle or more social interactions.”

How Alcohol Affects Your Weight

While the link between alcohol consumption and obesity is unclear, there are good reasons to think that alcohol may play a role:

This prevents your body from burning fat. It is high in kilojoules. This leads to more hunger and less satiety (the feeling of being full). This can cause craving for salty and greasy food. It is not clear whether alcohol consumption is a risk factor for weight gain. Drinking alcohol — especially in excessive amounts – has many other serious health risks beyond potential weight gain, including high blood pressure, high triglycerides, insulin resistance, heart disease, stroke, liver disease and some cancers. There is no safe level of alcohol during pregnancy.

How Alcohol Affects Your Liver

According to NHS Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) refers to liver damage caused by excess alcohol intake. There are several stages of severity and a range of associated symptoms. The liver breaks down most of the alcohol you drink so that it can be removed from the body. This process creates substances that are more harmful than alcohol. Large amounts of these substances can damage liver cells and cause serious liver disease. Alcohol causes 4 out of 5 deaths from liver disease.The liver is one of the most complex organs in the body.

Its functions include:

Filtering toxins from the blood
aiding digestion of food

Helping fight infection and disease

Regulating blood sugar and cholesterol levels

The liver is very resilient and capable of regenerating itself. Each time your liver filters alcohol, some of the liver cells die.

There are 3 main stages of ARLD, although there’s often an overlap between each stage. These stages are explained here.

  • Alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis

A unit of alcohol is equal to about half a pint of normal-strength lager or a pub measure (25ml) of spirits.

Even if you have been a heavy drinker for many years, reducing or stopping your alcohol intake will have important short-term and long-term benefits for your liver and overall health.

How Alcohol Affects Your Risk Of Cancer

If you drink alcohol, you are more likely to get cancer than if you don’t. But drinking alcohol doesn’t mean that you’ll definitely get cancer. Your exact risk will depend on lots of factors, including things you can’t change such as your age and genetics.

Even a small amount of alcohol can increase your risk, so the more you can cut down the more you can reduce your risk.

Drinking less alcohol has lots of other benefits too. You can reduce your risk of accidents, high blood pressure and liver disease by cutting back.

There are three main ways alcohol can cause cancer:

Damage to cells. When we drink alcohol, our bodies turn it into a chemical called acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can cause damage to our cells and can also stop the cells from repairing this damage.
Changes to hormones. Alcohol can increase the levels of some hormones such as oestrogen and insulin. Hormones are chemical messengers and higher levels can make cells divide more often, which raises the chance that cancer cells will develop.
Changes to cells in the mouth and throat. Alcohol can make cells in the mouth and throat more likely to absorb harmful chemicals. This makes it easier for cancer-causing substances (like those found in cigarette smoke) to get into the cell and cause damage.

Besides increasing your chances of liver cancer, alcohol consumption raises your risk of developing other types of cancer, too.

Further, she said, alcohol can affect the absorption of important nutrients like B vitamins and vitamins C and E. “Low levels of many vitamins and antioxidants are associated with a higher risk of cancer,” “Alcohol can also raise levels of hormones like estrogen, which can increase breast cancer risk.” 

So, do you need to give up alcohol altogether? If you’re generally healthy, you certainly don’t have to ― although you’d be hard-pressed to find a health expert who will suggest you drink alcohol to improve your health. 

If you’re going to drink, research shows that taking a break from alcohol can be beneficial to your overall health. And it’s always important to consume alcohol in moderation, no matter what type of alcohol you’re drinking.


I hope you liked our article, if you have then you can share your experience.


Madan Singh

Elephant Sentenced to Death

You must have heard about the death sentence of humans, but do you know that about 107 years ago, an elephant was publicly hanged in America, you will be surprised to know the reason.

Today none of you would have heard that any animal has been given death sentence. If you haven’t heard, today we are going to tell you the story of such an elephant. Which was publicly hanged in America about 107 years ago.

Elephant Sentenced to Death

You may find it strange to hear but this is the reality. 107 years ago today, on 13 September 1916, an elephant named Mary was hanged in the US state of Tennessee. During this two thousand people were present. There is a strange story behind the death penalty for the elephant.

A man named Charlie Sparks used to run a circus named ‘Sparks World Famous Show’ in Tennessee. There were many animals in that circus, including an Asian elephant named Mary, it is said that one day Mary’s mahout left the circus for some reason. After this the owner of the circus replaced him with another mahout. In such a situation, the new mahout did not know much about Hathi Mary. Also, Maryam did not spend much time with the mahout. That’s why Mahavat started having trouble in controlling Maryam.

Elephant Sentenced to Death

Meanwhile, one day a parade was organized in the city to promote the circus, in which all the animals including Mary and all the circus artists participated. A procession was taken out in the center of the city. During this, Mary saw some food item on the way, for which she started moving fast. During this, the mahout riding on the elephant hit his neck behind the ear with a spear, which enraged the elephant and the mahout fell down. After this the elephant crushed him with his feet. Due to which Mahavat died on the spot.

Seeing this incident, the crowd of people started running here and there. Enraged by this incident, some people started a ruckus on the streets raising slogans to kill the elephant. But at that time the matter had somehow calmed down. But most of the people of the city and the owner of the circus, Charlie Spark, together with the people, started demanding the death penalty for the elephant. The very next day of this incident, American newspapers gave special place to this unfortunate incident. After which this news spread rapidly throughout the city.

Elephant Sentenced to Death

The townspeople demand the death penalty for Mary the Elephant from circus owner Charlie Spark. Along with this, he also threatened that if this did not happen, he would never allow a circus to happen again in the city. Many people talked about killing the elephant in many ways. In the end, Charlie Spark had to bow to the insistence of the people and decided to put Mary (the elephant) to death. For this, he called for a crane lifting 100 tonnes and on 13 September 1916, with the help of a crane, the elephant was hanged among thousands of people. This incident is considered to be the most cruel example of humanity towards animals in history.

Elephant Sentenced to Death

I hope you will like this story very much and you will find this story very interesting, tell it to your friends and if you like it then we have to comment.


Madan singh

My first name : Meaning, significance, etymology

Write about your first name: its meaning, significance, etymology, etc.

My Name : Madan

Meaning of Madan

Madan Name Meaning of Kamadeva, God of love, Man full of beauty, Intoxicating, Pleasing, Another name for love god Kama, Spring, Passion. Madan is a baby boy name and is originally from India. Person with name Madan are predominantly Hindu by religion. Madan’s zodiac sign is Leo and constellation is Makha. More about baby name Madan.

Significance of Madan name

The name Madan is primarily a gender-neutral name of Indian origin that means God Of Love.

Madan means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, biology.

In hinduism Vaishnavism (Vaishnavism)
Madana in Vaishnavism terminology
One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: “Lord of love”

Ayurveda (Science of Life)
Madan in Ayurveda terminology
Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Medicines
Madan is the name of the plant identified in Hindi language as Senegalia catechu (L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. The following are synonyms from the Mimosaceae (touch-me-not) family: Acacia catechu, Mimosa catechu, Acacia wallichiana. For possible medicinal uses of Madana, you can check this page for possible sources and references, however keep in mind that none or any of the side effects may be mentioned here, whether they are harmful or beneficial to health Be

Madan in Sanskrit is the name of a plant identified with Mayna laxiflora from the Rubiaceae (coffee) family, with the following synonyms: Venguaria spinosa.

Madan in biology terminology

1) Madan in India is the name of a plant defined in various botanical sources with Catunaregum spinosa. This page contains possible references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices. Its synonym is Randia oxypetala Lindl. (among others).

2) Madan is also identified with Mayna laxiflora. Its synonym is Wangueria spinosa Roxb.

3) Madan in Sri Lanka is also identified with Syzygium cumini, its synonym is Jumbolifera coromandelica Houtt. (Etcetera.)

Madan Singh

Affects Of Depression on our Daily life


Depression affects our daily activities. its victims even commit suicide. It affects our motivation to do things. Effects Of Depression on our Daily life.

If we are in depression, we may feel listless and experience loss of energy and interest, nothing seems worth doing and no interest in doing things, we become irritable.

If we have children, we may lose interest in them due to depression and then feel guilty.

It can be a struggle to force yourself to do even the smallest of activities every day. Make mistakes in every work Some depressed people lose interest in things.

Others pursue their interests but do not enjoy them when they do them, have no control over themselves, or are too tired and lack the energy to do the things they want to do.

What is depression?

Sadly, if you are suffering from depression, you are far from being alone. In fact, it is estimated that there may be as many as 360 million people in the world today who have it. Depression has plagued humans for as long as records have been kept. Indeed, it was first named as a condition 2,40 years ago by the famous ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, who called it ‘melancholia’, it is also

Worth noting is that although we cannot ask animals how they feel, it is likely that they too have the capacity to feel sad: they certainly can behave as they do.

Depressed: They certainly can act like they do.

To a greater or lesser degree, we all have the capacity to be sad, just as we all have the capacity to worry, grieve, or fall in love. Depression is not a respect for the situation or fate.

In fact, many famous people throughout history have had it. King Solomon, Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill and Finnish composer Jean Sibelius are well-known examples from history.

It’s important to remember that depression is not about human weakness.

Read more

What will the great jobs of the future be like?

What’s your dream job?

What will the great jobs of the future be like?

If you do not get a job, it means that God is preparing you to become the boss again.

By the way, the best and best work in the world is self-employment, because people like Elon Musk have reached such heights today, it is possible only through self-employment, not with the help of a job, yet if you want to do a job, then where we are with you. For this, we have brought some selected fields in which you can make your future.Some of the future jobs are as follows-

Computer Vision Engineer: In this field, data based on digital image or graphical video is analysed. On an average a fresher gets a package of more than Rs 5 lakh per annum and can earn up to Rs 15 lakh per annum. During Covid 19, a lot of potential has been seen in this field.

Data Architect: A data architect installs and configures information systems for a company. Also receives work information for the company. Its demand is increasing day by day in the field of research, it analyses the infrastructure related requirements for the development of new software and applications and gives its output. A data architect with skills like big data and data mining gets a salary of up to Rs 30, ,tr lakh.

VFX Artist ÷ Visual-effects artist is in demand in every sector. By the way, placement is easily available in the movie and media industry as no film is complete without a VFX artist. You must have seen the movie Avatar. It has become so beautiful only because of visual-effects.
VFX Artist will get an annual package of more than Rs 7 lakh.

Wireless Network Specialist: Since the world is from 4G to 5G, the network industry is growing and changing rapidly, so the demand for experts will also increase day by day. They are also called System Support Specialists. His salary is 10 to 15 lakh rupees annually.

Embedded System Program: It is a combination of hardware and mechanics. Many companies are hiring embedded system programmers to develop embedded computers, due to which a good growth has been seen in it. A fresher gets a package of Rs 5 lakh per annum in this job.

Automobile Analytics Engineer ÷ In 2023, there will be a lot of growth in the automobile industry as well. Now automobiles are moving towards electric leaving dependence on petrol. With this, the demand for analytical engineer will increase. A fresher can get an annual package of Rs 8 lakh in this field.

3-D Printing Technology ÷ This is a new technology that is being used in manufacturing that gives an impression of reality. The main job of a 3D printing technician is to monitor the printing process and make daily schedules for the printers. Freshers in this field can start their career with a package of more than Rs 7 lakh per annum.

Data Scientist: The data that you were seeing during the Corona period has become possible only because of the hard work of the data scientist. Companies rely more on Data Scientists. This is essential for their growth. Data scientists study the data and tell them useful things, which along with the growth of the business makes it strong. The salary of a Data Scientist is at least Rs 10 lakh per annum.

Here we are giving a list of some upcoming jobs according to which you can make your career.

◊ Augmented Reality Architect
◊ Autonomous Vehicle Operator
◊ Avatar Relationship Manager
◊ Chef-Farmer (Agri-Restaurant)
◊ Chief Experience Officer
◊ Digital Identity Planner
◊ Digital Archaeologist
◊ Energy Harvester
◊ Environmental Health Nurse
◊ Financial Technologist
◊ Future Guide
◊ Global Sourcing Manager
◊ Global System Architect
◊ Field Researcher
◊ Green Career Coach
◊ Healer
◊ Office Concierge
◊ Online Community Organizer
◊ Organizational Quartermaster
◊ Personal Brand Manager
◊ Personal Care Coordinator
◊ Plant Psychologist
◊ Post-Normal Jobs Counselor
◊ Resident Technician
◊ Seed Capitalist
◊ Smart Road Designer/Engineer
◊ Talent Aggregator
◊ Terabyte (Lifelogger)
◊ Transhumanist Consultant
◊ Wiki author

Hope you have liked our today’s article, if you have come, then definitely reply.


What will the great jobs of the future be like?

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How to become rich

How many jobs are available in real estate

Leadership – A great Quality

What makes a good leader?

Leadership – A great Quality

He becomes a good leader only on the strength of his hard work and his genuineness of certain qualities. The development of the country lies only with the dedication of a leader. In the upliftment of any country, in its progress, the personality qualities of a leader, leadership and moving forward with a goal. The leader achieves his goal through his courage, diligence, perseverance and the use of his intelligence and discretion.

leadership – a great quality

leadership is a quality by which you

You can get information on –

  • A great leader has many qualities which make him popular.
  • The ability to lead is a quality that can be seen within only a few.
  • Some people inherit it while some acquire it over a period of time.
  • Good leadership can also bring success to business/firms.
  • If you have leadership qualities then you can play the role of a leader.
  • You have leadership qualities if you recognize the line that separates trust and confidence. Important
  • You can identify and master the leadership characteristics and unique leadership abilities within you

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Madan Singh

Brian Walshe, the husband of the missing woman, had sought information about the dismemberment of a body || Husband of missing Massachusetts woman found ’10 ways to dispose of dead body’ according to prosecutors says

According to the newspapers, Brian Walshe allegedly committed the heinous act of murdering his own wife, Anna Walshe, for whatever reason. Thereafter, the Massachusetts-based criminal dismembered her body. According to reports, he also searched on the son’s iPad how and where to dispose of the dead body.

Anna Walshe

Walshe allegedly committed the heinous crime to end their marriage, which is hard to believe and destroys trust in relationships. This thing came to the fore during the hearing of Brian Walshe on Wednesday. Walshe’s wife went missing on January 1.

The team of investigators has recovered 10 bags from the garbage dump containing blood-stained clothes, personal belongings, blood-stained carpet, axe. They even found Brian Walshe’s wife Ana Walshe’s Covid-19 vaccination certificate and her neck part which is going to give goosebumps.

Investigation after forensic examination revealed that the blood belonged to both Brian and Anna Walshe.

Prosecutors say Brian Walshe, the husband of a missing Massachusetts woman, discovered ’10 Ways to Dispose of a Dead Body’ – including “10 Ways to Dispose of a Dead Body If You Really Need to” and “How to Stun A body”. did the following Google searches on her son’s iPad: “how long before a body starts to stink,” “how to stop a body from decomposing,” “how to wrap a body,” “disposing of a dead body” 10 Ways to Live”, “If You Really Need To,” “How Long Should Someone Miss an Inheritance,” and “Can You Throw Away Body Parts?”

According to the criminal complaint, Brian Walshe has been charged with assault and beating his wife with intent to murder, as well as moving her body or remains. He pleaded not guilty to the


  1. Who is Brian Walshe?
    Brain Walshe Massachusetts-based art swindler and accused of the killing his wife.
  2. Did Brian Walshe kill his wife?
    Brian Walshe was accused of killing his wife, Investigation going on.

Goodbye Jay Briscoe || Jay Briscoe Dead At Age 38 || What caused his death?

Goodbye Jay Briscoe

‘Heartbroken’: 38-year-old Professional Wrestler’s Death Leaves Wrestling World Devastated, It is with great sadness that I announce the passing away of veteran wrestler Jay Briscoe (real name Jamin Pugh)  which is a great loss to the entire world, Goodbye Jay Briscoe.

AEW and ROH owner Tony Khan took to Twitter on Tuesday evening to share heartbreaking news that has shocked everyone who knew him around the world.

Khan wrote and expressed grief, “Sad to know that Jamin Pugh has passed away.” “Known to fans as Jay Briscoe, he was a star in ROH for over 20 years from the first show to the present day. Jay and his brother Mark dominated ROH, reigning as champions to this day. .We will do whatever we can to support.We all pray to God to rest his soul in peace and give strength to his family in this difficult time.

Following their victory over FTR at ROH Final Battle on December 10, Jay and his brother, Mark, were the ROH World Tag Team Champions. Team Gold for promotions such as NJPW, Impact Wrestling, GCW and CZW, in addition to their 13 stints as ROH World Tag Team Champions. During his illustrious career, Jay also found success as a singles wrestler, holding the ROH World Championship on two separate occasions.

Jay Briscoe
All Elite Wrestling released a statement lamenting the untimely death of Jamin Pugh, better known as Jay Briscoe to wrestling fans worldwide. “We are thinking of his family, his friends, and his fans.”

Brix was inducted into the ROH Hall of Fame in 2022 as part of the inaugural class. Update: As of Tuesday night, there was no official word on the exact cause of Jay’s death. However, the Laurel School District in Sussex County — where Jay went to school — released the following statement in acknowledgment of the hometown hero’s passing. “Due to an unimaginable tragedy in our community this evening, Laurel School District will be closed tomorrow, Wednesday January 18, 2023. Schools will reopen on Thursday. Please keep the Pugh family in your thoughts and prayers.”

Who was Jay Briscoe ?

Jay Briscoe’s real name was Jamin Pugh, who passed away Tuesday evening, triggering an outpour of emotions on social media. All Elite Wrestling CEO Tony Khan announced the news of Jay Briscoe’s death on Twitter. The cause of his death has been revealed in the media. He was reportedly involved in a car accident in Delaware. Together with his brother Mark, Briscoe joined ROH wrestling in 2002, establishing the popular tag team known as The Briscoe Brothers. Since the company’s very first show, Briscoe, who was 18 at the time, and Mark, who was 17, have participated in competitions.

What caused his death?

The thirteen-time ROH Tag Team Champion lost his life in a car collision. According to reports, the incident happened in Laurel, Maryland. According to Delaware State Police, two people died Tuesday evening in a deadly automobile collision in Laurel. Additional information regarding Jay Briscoe’s death was given by Ringside News. The report states that a woman in another car also passed away at the same time. According to the emergency medical services log that the outlet was able to access, his daughter was also reportedly involved in the car crash.

Whats Jay Briscoe major achievements ?

The Briscoe Brothers are regarded as the best tag team pair. The Briscoe Brothers held the ROH World Tag Team Championship crown 13 times, for a record total of 1,413 days. In a Double Dog Collar match against FTR’s Cash Wheeler and Dax Harwood, they recently won the tag team title. The ROH Hall of Fame’s first class of honourees also included Briscoe and his brother Mark.


  1. What was the ring name of Jamin Pugh?
    Jay Briscoe
  2. Where are The Briscoe Brothers from?
    Laurel, Delaware

How To Proposing To Your Crush On The Valentine’s Day

Your Love is Expressed

If you love someone and tell him about your heart, then this activity is called proposing This article is related to “ How To Proposing To Your Crush On The Valentine’s Day” which will enhance your experience. You can’t propose to her if you can’t muster up the courage. Have you thought about speaking your heart for a long time? Is it possible to tell him what is in your heart? Are you Afraid to propose? In today’s article we will discuss the aspects related to props, after reading which you will tell your heart, so speak your heart with full preparation, maybe it will work for you. The path of love is full of fire, bt its first test is considered to be expression. Only the one who expresses himself without fear of rejection gets success in the path of love. It is difficult to tell someone about your heart because it is easy to settle someone in the heart.

How to propose someone?

You stop speaking if you want to propose to someone. It means you want him. The fear of losing the one we love makes us nervous. Let us tell you all the ways in which your confidence level will increase and you will give your heart to your girlfriend or boyfriend, you’ll feel better once you open up about your feelings, even if you’re nervous about it. You can turn your feelings into a special occasion with a little preparation. Let’s start.

Three important points can be adopted if you are young.

Understanding the situation

Take a step back: Take stock of the situation and be sensible for a moment. Think about your relationship with this person and try to understand how he feels about you. Do you think he will love you? All you have to do is think about what to do now. You will need to proceed very carefully if it is not.

Make sure you say what you mean: It can be hard to understand if you’ve never been in love before. There are many types of love. Friendly love, family love, romantic love. If you think you love this person, then you should tell them. It is important, even though you know the importance of your it words.

Your intentions should be clear: Don’t say “I love you” to someone to get their attention. If you plan to go beyond these words, only say this. Romantic love usually means being involved with another person and caring for them.

Feel free to say something: You can check the matter by saying a few words that don’t make sense. Would you like to hang out with me, like you can say, “I really like you” or “You make me happy” It’s not the only way to show that you care. Say something nice about the person. Say something like, “I love the way you think” or “I love the way you dance”.

Be bold: Life is short and love is valid. If you love someone, there’s a chance that they won’t love you back or they’ll break up with you. It is something that you cannot ignore. No matter how scared you are, moving forward is the only way to go.

The scene is being set

You can choose a romantic setting: The two of you are alone in a quiet place. When the sun is setting, take her out to a restaurant or a garden. Make sure they are comfortable there. The exact location will be determined by who you are expressing your love to. You should choose a place that is special to both of you.

A meaningful moment can be created: It’s important to make the moment special and express love is a big deal for both people. You can either plan for it or wait for it. Either the moment is dramatic or simple. Say it when you are motivated. It could be when you share a beautiful sunset after a wonderful day together, or when you just want to be with each other. Laughing at something together. There are romantic scenes in movies. The hero declares his love. When you want to hurt, try to understand the moo

You need to make sure you’re alone: You can make a dramatic public declaration if you feel up to it. The person you love may not like this attention. When you don’t know how he will react, this becomes even more important. You’ll give the person the chance to respond i

Make a plan to show up: Set up a meeting with the person if you don’t already have one. You have to let things happen on their own. You can set the scene so that your expression is timely. Make sure you know what to say. You can express your feelings by writing a letter if you can’t be with the person you love. The method is considered very close despite being a bit abstract.

Get their attention: Don’t show your love at a time when the other person’s attention is not focused. Words become more powerful when you look into each other’s eyes. You will probably have success if you are already in a certain moment. There will never be a right time. You can get their attention by saying, “I have something important to tell you”.

You should express your love

Look into their eyes: Make eye contact with someone you love when the time is right. You are sincere if you eye contact. It should make the two of you feel more connected because it gives you a quick indication of how they feel about what you’re saying.

Say, “I love you” It’s as simple as that: If you really love this person, you don’t need to clean it up. A little rhyme or explanation won’t hurt if you feel like it. Being honest and trustworthy is the most important thing. Tell the story of how you fell in love with this person. Say something that is true and sweet. Make her feel special by making her unique. Say it casually or seriously according to your comfort level. Make sure the person knows you’re serious.

If your love says “I love you” to you: Then be happy. This is a special time. Take the experience to a whole new level if you are on board with the loving feeling. You will remember this one moment of your life for the rest of your life.

Be patient: Give your crush time to process what you’ve said. They may declare their love right away. It is possible that your expression takes them by surprise, and they need time to think about it. Listen and respect. Don’t make assumptions. If the person doesn’t respond to your feelings the way you want them to, it’s okay. You may get hurt, but don’t be angry. Accept it.

Be proud of yourself: No matter who reciprocates your love, be proud of yourself for being able to tell them how you feel. It takes a lot of courage to say you love someone. Whatever it is. Now they know.

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The ‘super-deep’ royal diamonds revealing Earth’s secrets

The largest diamonds in the British Crown Jewels may be pieces of the ancient ocean floor, which have drifted down into the interior of our planet – then come back up again.


The package arrived in a plain cardboard box. It was simply addressed to S Neumann & Co – a mining sales agency in the centre of London – and weighed just over a pound (around 500g). But this was no ordinary cargo.It was April 1905, and three months earlier, the surface manager at the Premier Mine in South Africa had been completing a routine inspection 18ft (5.4m) underground, when he glimpsed a reflected light in the rough wall above him. He assumed it was a large piece of glass hammered in by colleagues as a practical joke. Just in case, out came his pocket knife, and after some digging… the knife promptly snapped. Eventually the rock was removed successfully, and revealed to be a bona fide diamond – a monster 3,106.75-carat stone, almost the size of a fist. It was not only enormous, but unusually transparent.The Cullinan, as it became known, is the largest diamond ever found. Once it had been polished and cleaved into several more manageable stones, the largest crystal it yielded would shine like the cool glow of a star in a distant galaxy. As a result, this stone – the Cullinan I – is sometimes known as the Great Star of Africa.

Nearly 120 years later, the mega-diamond has not been forgotten. During the late Queen Elizabeth II’s funeral procession, several of the Cullinan’s descendants were placed on the Monarch’s coffin, and rode along with her – they were only removed as she was lowered into the royal vault. That’s because today these giant gems are part of the Crown Jewels, normally kept in the Tower of London and brought out for state events – the Cullinan I now resides in the British Sovereign’s Sceptre, while its next-largest sibling, the Cullinan II, is embedded in the Imperial State Crown.

However, before the rough diamond could have its makeover and take its place in history, it needed to be sold – and London was chosen as the most promising location to do this. This presented a problem: how do you transport such a valuable stone 7,926 miles (12,755km), without it being stolen?

In the end, the precious rock was sent all the way from Johannesburg by ordinary registered post, at a cost of just three shillings or about 75 US Cents at the time (around £11.79 or US$13.79 today). Meanwhile, a replica of the diamond made the long voyage to London by steamboat – it was placed conspicuously within the captain’s safe and guarded by police detectives as a decoy. Amazingly, both made it to their destination. After years of failing to sell, the diamond – the real version, this time – was purchased by the Transvaal government for £150,000 (£20m or US$22.5m today) and gifted to King Edward VII. But though they’re renowned across the globe for their size and transparency, these characteristics are no accident. The Cullinan was a “Clippir” diamond – a member of a special category of the very largest and clearest examples ever found. And there is more to them than meets the eye.For all their beauty, diamonds are really fragments of the deep Earth – intriguing geological anomalies disguised as mere jewellery. These strange rocks are capsules from another world – a mysterious realm of unfathomable pressures, swirling green rock, and elusive minerals, far below the Earth’s surface. Scientists around the globe have been studying them for decades to reveal the region’s secrets – and intriguingly, it’s the very diamonds that we value most that have the most unusual stories to tell. In fact, large rocks like the Cullinan are transforming our understanding of the inside of our planet.An unusual opportunity Sitting in front of a microscope at the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) in 2020, Evan Smith carefully stretched some rubber gloves over his fingers, and peered into the instrument’s lenses. Beneath was a diamond worth almost as much as a small country – about the size of a walnut, with 124 carats of wonderous brilliance. To reach this point, Smith had already navigated almost military levels of security – iris scans and identity checks, followed by layer after layer of locked doors, secure lifts and mysterious restricted corridors. While he worked, video cameras streamed a constant view of the room to watchful security guards.

Smith – a senior research scientist

Smith – a senior research scientist at GIA – was examining the diamond for inclusions, chemical hitchhikers from the interior of our planet that can reveal how the crystal formed, and under what conditions. But working with high-value diamonds is a tricky business – ordinarily, it’s impossible for researchers to get their hands on the largest specimens. They’re sometimes flown around the world to visit potential customers – alas, never scientists.

Maya Kopylova, a professor of mineral exploration at the University of British Columbia

Maya Kopylova, a professor of mineral exploration at the University of British Columbia, says getting samples of any diamonds is hard, and most of the diamonds she works with would have otherwise been thrown away. “Researchers have to have a good relationship with companies and they will never give you valuable samples,” she says. “So, they will never give us diamonds that are 6mm (0.2 inches) in size or larger.”Even then, acquiring them is convoluted and expensive – first, Kopylova has to visit the high-security facilities where diamonds are sorted and identify the specimens she’d like to study. Once the acquisition has been approved, then comes the paperwork – all diamonds must travel with a Kimberley Process certificate, which proves its provenance and helps to prevent conflict or “blood” diamonds from entering the market.However, Smith’s situation is different. At GIA, he has access to one of the largest collections of diamonds on the planet – millions of gems that have been sent there to be valued, so that they can be insured or sold. “If you want to see something rare and unusual, this is the perfect place to go because there are diamonds coming through here all the time,” says Smith. “Every few days, you might get to borrow a diamond for maybe a few hours, maybe a day or two and study it.”A few years earlier, this is exactly what Smith had done. Together with an international team of scientists, he casually requisitioned 53 of the largest, clearest and most expensive available – including some from the same mine as the Cullinan diamond – and took them back to his laboratory to view under a microscope.What Smith found was revolutionary. Nearly three-quarters of the Clippir diamonds contained tiny pockets, or “inclusions” of metal that had avoided rusting – not something you’d find in ordinary ones – while the remaining 15 contained a kind of garnet which only forms within the Earth’s mantle, the layer above its molten core.Together, these inclusions provide chemical clues that the diamonds could only have formed no fewer than 360km (224 miles) and no more than 750km (466 miles) underfoot. In this Goldilocks zone, it’s deep enough to explain the metal inclusions that hadn’t been exposed to oxygen, which is abundant higher up, and it’s not so deep that the garnet rocks would have broken down under the immense pressures of the lower mantle. Ordinary diamonds, meanwhile, originate below the crust, just 150-200km (93-124 miles) down. For his 2020 study – together with Wuyi Wang, who is vice presedent of research & development at GIA – Smith analysed the 124-carat diamond and found that it formed at the deeper end of the possible range – at least 660km (410 miles) below the Earth’s surface.

Some of the carbon in super-deep diamonds may be from ancient sea creatures, which were buried in oceanic plates that subsequently drifted down into the mantle

From the depths

Back in the 1980s, geologists began to notice that some diamonds looked different to others – sometimes they contained minerals that could suggest they formed at higher pressures than regular ones (more on this later). “We started to wonder whether some diamonds might actually be formed deeper than others.”

THE CULLINAN DIAMONDS Once it had arrived in London safely, the rough Cullinan diamond was sent to be cut by Joseph Asscher. It’s reported that the rock was so massive, the first heavy blow of the hammer led to yet another knife casualty (it broke) – and made him faint. However, eventually Asscher managed to divide the diamond into nine major stones, the largest of which was 530.20 carats – a measure of its weight – and 96 smaller ones. While the larger stones became part of the British Crown Jewels or the British monarch’s private collection, the smaller fragments were sold to various clients around the world.

Around the same time, they noticed a puzzling pattern. Most diamonds – called Type I – contain a significant amount of nitrogen, which affects their crystal structure and can add a hint of pale yellow or brown. Occasionally, though, a diamond has almost no detectable traces of this element. These are the Type II diamonds, and the phenomenon is extremely rare – except in the very largest diamonds.”It’s not just that they’re big that sets them apart,” says Smith. “When you look at these big, high-quality [type II] diamonds, like the Cullinan, there turned out to be something strange about them, that makes them more likely to fall into this category that should otherwise be something very rare. So this was kind of a long-standing mystery.”Eventually scientists discovered that some diamonds are “super-deep”, and identified a handful of mines where they were most likely to be found – including the Cullinan mine in South Africa and Letseng mine in the nearby kingdom of Lesotho, where Smith’s 124-carat specimen originated.

Today many super-deep diamonds come from the Cullinan mine in South Africa, and Letseng mine in the neighbouring country of Lesotho

But for decades, most of the diamonds found to be from deeper in the Earth were small and not particularly valuable. Studying large, expensive diamonds has always been tricky – no one had checked if they could also fit into this category. “We never really thought of them as something that could be gem quality – that we would ever be wearing super-deep diamonds or, you know, putting them in crowns or sceptres or anything like that,” says Smith.The final clincher in Smith’s 2020 study was an elusive mineral that was only seen for the first time six years earlier – found in a 4.5 billion-year-old meteorite that slammed into the Earth back in 1879.It’s thought that the ancient extra-terrestrial rock had once been part of a much larger celestial object, an asteroid, and broke off during a catastrophic impact. During this process, it experienced staggeringly high pressures, similar to those found within the Earth.The Tenham meteorite, as it is known, broke up as it fell, scattering fragments across Queensland, Australia – many of which were collected and eventually gifted to the British Museum in London by a geologist’s widow. Fast-forward 143 years, and the fragments have been extensively studied, particularly for what they might tell us about our planet’s interior.And in 2014, scientists glimpsed the mineral bridgmanite within one of these alien rocks. Though it’s the most abundant material on Earth, it can only exist at the high pressures found in the lower mantle, the layer above the Earth’s molten core. Like many high-pressure minerals, it breaks up when it gets to the surface – and this was the first time it had ever been seen.Amazingly, the 124-carat gem Smith studied contained this very mineral, though in its broken-down form – even inside diamonds, it doesn’t usually survive the journey up. This suggests that the glittering rock formed within the lower mantle, at pressures at least 240,000 times those at sea level. That’s 240 times the crushing pressure in the deepest part of the ocean, the Mariana Trench.But why does this all make super-deep diamonds so different? And what can they tell us about the hidden world they’re made in?

Ancient carbon

According to Smith, the unusual qualities of the world’s largest and most valuable diamonds are all down to the way they form.

Even the origins of regular diamonds are still somewhat mysterious, but they’re thought to start life as a fluid – most likely ancient seawater trapped deep underground along with sinking oceanic plates. Somehow, perhaps due to a sudden change in temperature or pressure, this mineral-rich water ends up rejecting the carbon that’s dissolved within it, which is precipitated out – and under the immense pressures below the Earth’s crust, the carbon crystallises into diamonds.

But super-deep diamonds like the Cullinan are different. Instead of a beginning within water, these start life as carbon dissolved within liquid metal, far down in the planet’s interior. “It’s like molten iron nickel alloy with sulphur and carbon dissolved in that,” says Smith. “So it’s a totally different kind of fluid, but it’s still carbon fluid. It’s undergoing whatever chemical or temperature changes, and that’s causing carbon to crystallise out.” In this case, the initial fluid contains less nitrogen, so they end up with very little of this element – and are consequently more transparent. 

In short, Clippir diamonds aren’t just regular ones that have somehow grown to remarkable proportions – they’re fundamentally different. In fact, their unparalleled size and transparency are a direct result of the unusual way they form. And since their discovery, super-deep diamonds have revealed some of our planet’s most closely guarded secrets.

“I think the biggest thing they [super-deep diamonds] inform us about is the process of subduction – when an oceanic tectonic plate, sinks down into the Earth,” says Smith.This is the phenomenon we all learn about in classes at school – the Earth is split up into seven tectonic plates, which “float” around on the surface, generating earthquakes when they rub against one another, and volcanoes when they move apart or get too close. Crucially, while new plates are constantly being formed, some are also slowly slipping below the crust, never to be seen again.


Many of the Crown Jewels come from countries that were colonised by the British.ff As a result of this legacy, the Cullinan diamonds remain controversial in South Africa, and recently there have been calls to return them. Separately, several countries have asked for the return of the Koh-i-Noor, which sits next to the Cullinan II in the Imperial State Crown. This diamond, which is also of super-deep origin, is thought to have been mined in India up to a thousand years ago – its early history has been lost. It was passed between the hands of generations of rulers in South Asia before it was acquired by Queen Victoria when the Punjab Region was annexed by the British in the mid-19th Century.

But though scientists have long suspected that these vanished, subducting plates – which are usually heavier, oceanic ones – eventually drift down into the lower mantle, this has never been confirmed. “You can go to a volcano and say, ‘yeah, this magma comes out of the Earth’, or go to spreading centres of the oceans and see, that there’s new crust forming…But it’s really difficult to do the opposite and say, what’s going down into the Earth?” says Smith. Super-deep diamonds can provide important clues, because amazingly, these disappeared tectonic plates might be what they are made of. “So we’ve seen diamonds that look like they’re essentially pieces of the oceanic crust that have been carried down to the lower mantle,” says Smith. “These diamonds are physically telling us that this process is physically true.”Other than confirming what happens to oceanic plates that end up in the interior of our planet, super-deep diamonds also tell us about the kinds of things you might find in the lower mantle. For a start, there must be carbon, or the diamonds wouldn’t exist. But in 2021, the discovery of a rare super-deep diamond from Juína, Brazil, hinted that there may also be whole “oceans” of water.

The largest diamonds in the world also tend to be exceptionally transparent

The diamond contains a pocket of a vivid blue mineral, hydrous ringwoodite, which is a high-pressure form of olivine, the green rock that makes up most of the upper mantle. Under the microscope, it looks like a tiny shard of indigo glass – and this type contains around 2.5% water.For years, scientists have believed that all the water at the Earth’s surface – in rivers, ice sheets, lakes and oceans – ultimately comes from the mantle. But where exactly it could be stored has been up for debate, particularly because olivine does not store water well. However, the discovery of water-saturated ringwoodite suggests that it’s stored lower down, in the same region where many super-deep diamonds form.The more scientists learn about them, the clearer it becomes that super-deep diamonds aren’t just extraordinary valuable in monetary terms – without them, many of the processes inside the Earth would have remained hidden from view.”There is definitely a wow factor when you’re trying to scrutinise something under the microscope, but then you also have in the back of your mind this idea that the object you’re handling is worth millions of dollars,” says Smith. “And it struck me a few times, I mean, just looking at some of these things, and thinking about, ‘Oh wouldn’t it be great if we could break this open or study in more detail just because it’s such a fascinating scientific sample’… but then you can’t because it’s such a valuable gemstone. There’s kind of a weird duality.”Since smashing diamonds is generally frowned upon, Smith can’t help longing for a less destructive – though no less radical – alternative: leaving diamonds in their rough form. When the rocks emerge from the Earth, they’re lumpy and coarse, with none of the sparkle they acquire after they’ve been cut and polished – but the surface you see reads like a history of their adventures underground.”The diamond can be chemically etched away by magma, and you end up with these really unusual shapes and intricate features… the natural surfaces that have been sculpted by all these different forces over millions of years. That is unique, and I see a lot of beauty in that.”

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CBSE Board Exam 2023

My Best 50 Animation Favorite Cartoon || Favorite Cartoon

That’s your favorite cartoon?

I like my Best 50 Animation Cartoon Ever, Kid’s shows have changed a ton in the 10 years since Glue initially distributed this rundown. Indeed, new episodes of The Simpsons, Family Fellow, South Park and SpongeBob Squarepants are produced every year as expected, however they’re just a glimpse of something larger. Conventional link networks have made previously unheard-of characters and universes in movement, while streaming stages have permitted significantly more makers to make the energized shows they need to make: My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

No longer are cartoons something only for children to enjoy on Saturday mornings. Many employ wittier humor, more complex characters and deeper stories to engage those of any age, while even more target teens or adults as their prime audience, giving them the ability to tell relatable, powerful and hilarious stories within the realm of animation. Western cartoons have never been as varied as they are now, and I believe they have the potential to reach the same cultural status anime took decades ago in Japan.
With the world of cartoons changing so dramatically, we decided it was time to update our list of the top 50 cartoon characters of all time, taking into account the cultural influence, relatability, and relevance these animated humans, animals, vegetables, etc. hold within the realm of animation in the 2020s. Many of these characters have expanded beyond their cartoon origins into other media, but for the purposes of this list, we will only be examining these characters as they appear in cartoons, originating either from the show itself or corresponding comics and books. —Joseph Stanichar

50. Peppa Pig : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2004
Creators: Neville Astley and Mark Baker
Voice: Lily Snowden-Fine, Harley Bird
Peppa Pig is geared toward the youngest audience of any character on this list, but the adorable piglet’s British accent and gentle humor have melted the hearts of adults not just in the U.K. but across the pond as well. —Joseph Stanichar

49. Bender (Futurama) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1999
Creator: Matt Groening
Voice: John DiMaggio
Made in Mexico, Bender is a sociopath of steel (er, well, iron, titanium, lead, zinc, dolomite and nickel), who has kidnapped Jay Leno’s head and sent his own son to robot hell. But he really just wants to be a folk-singer. —Josh Jackson

48. Beavis & Butt-Head :My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1992
Creator: Mike Judge
Voices: Mike Judge
Beavis and Butt-Head made MTV’s lack of music much more palatable. The show managed to both satirize and celebrate the lowest common denominator of the 1990s. Since then, we’ve had another season in 2011 and two more on their way during the ‘20s, ensuring these two doofuses’ influence throughout four decades. —Josh Jackson

47. Larry the Cucumber (Veggie Tales) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1993
Creators: Phil Vischer, Mike Nawrocki
Voice: Mike Nawrocki
After all the cultural good that Christianity gave us over the last two Millennia, the second half of the 20th century wasn’t exactly a high-water mark. But in the 1990s, Veggie Tales became the exceptional piece of genius pop culture in the typical Christian bookstore. And Larry the Cucumber was the biggest reason why, with his “Silly Songs with Larry” segments being the most popular among both kids of the ‘90s and today in the show’s current iteration, The VeggieTales Show. —Josh Jackson

46. Angelica Pickles (Rugrats): My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1991
Creator: Arlene Klasky
Voice: Cheryl Chase
The ultimate spoiled brat alpha child, Angelica Pickles ran the baby Rugrats like her own syndicate. An off-key antagonist who never saw something she couldn’t be jealous of or use for her own motivations, Angelica’s greatest legacy is making viewers realize she doesn’t represent their “terrible” sibling, but more honestly themselves. —Allison Keene

45. Space Ghost (Coast to Coast) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1966
Creators: Alex Toth, William Hanna, Joseph Barbera / Mike Lazzo
Voices: George Lowe, C. Martin Croker, Andy Merrill, Don Kennedy
On his own, most probably wouldn’t remember brief Hanna Barbera creation Space Ghost. But thanks to Mike Lazzo, the character was repurposed in the 1990s as the awkward, hostile host of a surrealist talk show that ended up launching careers and inspiring a number of other great series (like Sealab 2021 and Harvey Birdman: Attorney at Law) that similarly repurposed old Warner IP for our modern amusement. —Allison Keene

44. Johnny Bravo : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1995
Creators: Van Partible
Voice: Jeff Bennett
It’s unlikely that a show like Johnny Bravo would be made today. Created right before the realm of adult cartoons really took off, this show was still marketed for kids but let lots of risque humor through under Cartoon Network’s radar. Even though Johnny’s behavior borders on the chauvinistic, the show makes clear that he’s meant to be the opposite of a role model, nearly always suffering some awful fate due to his hubris. Still, his nonsensical pick-up lines are ironically delightful. My favorite one: “Hey pretty mama, wanna see me comb my hair really fast?” —Joseph Stanichar

43. Felix the Cat : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1919
Creators: Pat Sullivan, Otto Messmer
Voices: Jack Mercer, various others
Most stars of the silent era didn’t survive the transition to sound, but Felix—who once shared screen-time with Charlie Chaplin—did just fine and remains an icon. —Josh Jackson

42. Cosmo and Wanda (The Fairly Oddparents) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1997
Creator: Butch Hartman
Voices: Daran Norris, Susanne Blakeslee
The wacky, impulsive Cosmo and the calm, pragmatic Wanda may seem like a (fairly) odd couple, but given that they’ve been together for 10,000 years, they’re obviously doing something right. The fairy godparents of 10-year-old Timmy Turner, Cosmo and Wanda have the power to grant his every wish, which always inevitably goes wrong. It’s this premise that gave The Fairly Oddparents its fun, lighthearted style in each of its 172 episodes. —Joseph Stanichar

41. Arthur : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1976
Creator: Marc Brown
Voices: Michael Yarmush, Roman Lutterotti, various others
Based on Marc Brown’s children’s books, the Arthur TV series has been on the air since 1996. In that time, the aardvark—along with his friends and family—has learned hundreds of lessons about how to “get along with each other,” as the groovy theme song indicates. Arthur and his friends feel like real kids, acting and speaking in ways that actual kids their age do, getting into arguments and misbehaving in ways that other shows might try to censor. The PBS show has also been consistently inclusive with representations of characters with different cultures, identities, disabilities and even diseases such as cancer, in a way that’s respectful while not talking down to kids. —Joseph Stanichar

40. Yogi Bear : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1958
Creators: William Hanna, Joseph Barbera, Ed Benedict
Voices: Daws Butler, Greg Burson, various others
He’s smarter than the average bear, but it’s not just cleverness that makes Yogi great. It’s his joyful love of harmless mischief that made every episode a classic. —Josh Jackson

39. Daffy Duck (Looney Tunes) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1937
Creators: Tex Avery, Bob Clampett
Voices: Mel Blanc, Jeff Bergman, various others
Yes, Daffy can himself be “despicable!” but as his enduring popularity shows, he’s endearing all the same. —Josh Jackson

38. Daria Morgendorffer : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1993
Creators: Mike Judge, Glenn Eichler
Voice: Tracy Grandstaff
Daria Morgendorffer weathered suburbia under an armor of sublime snark that was essential for any alt girl in the 90s to study. Affecting and entertaining with absurd sidestories and clever social commentary, Daria was so fun to watch. —Julia Askense

37. Ed, Edd & Eddy : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1999
Creator: Danny Antonucci
Voices: Matt Hill, Samuel Vincent, Tony Sampson
A cartoonish incarnation of the three stooges, these characters brought simple, stupid slapstick back onto TV, and we couldn’t be more grateful. —Joseph Stanichar

36. Grunkle Stan (Gravity Falls) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2012
Creator: Alex Hirsch
Voice: Alex Hirsch
A perfect combination of comedy and mystery, Dipper and Mabel Pines’ great-uncle, aka. “Grunkle” Stanford Pines is a swindler, running a tourist trap named the Mystery Shack and seemingly only interested in robbing people of their money through cheaply made and fraudulently advertised products and attractions. However, as the series progresses, we discover another, more secretive side to the grunkle, with fans discovering an ominous cryptogram in Gravity Falls’ opening theme: “Stan is not what he seems.” —Joseph Stanichar

35. Stewie Griffin (Family Guy) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1999
Creator: Seth MacFarlane
Voice: Seth MacFarlane
Other evil geniuses aren’t hampered by their youth, but one-year-old baby Stewie doesn’t let that stop him. Despite, you know, being a year old for over 20 years. —Josh Jackson

34. Popeye : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1929
Creator: E. C. Segar
Voices: William Costello (1933-1935), Jack Mercer (1935-1984), various others
Among the earliest icons of American animation, Popeye the Sailor became instantly beloved thanks to his wacky antics and superhuman strength upon downing a can of spinach. —Joseph Stanichar

33. Phineas and Ferb : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2007
Creators: Dan Povenmire, Jeff “Swampy” Marsh
Voices: Vincent Martella, Thomas Sangster
“Hey Ferb, I know what we’re going to do today,” Phineas says each show before launching into their latest ambitious plan to pass the summer days, whether it’s building a giant tree house that transforms into a giant robot, filming a movie or creating a time machine. And even though the stepbrothers’ grand plans escape the attention of their parents and drive Candace nuts, Phineas and Ferb remain completely guileless. Hard to believe this was on the Disney Channel. —Josh Jackson

32. Garnet (Steven Universe) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2013
Creator: Rebecca Sugar
Voice: Estelle
Revealed to be a fusion of two other characters, Ruby and Sapphire, Garnet is the embodiment of empowerment. A manifestation of these characters’ queer relationship, she has both the ability to see into the future and kick serious ass to change it. Nowhere is this as evident as in her fight song, “Made of Love,” in which she taunts her opponent while explaining how her bond is unbreakable. More than any other character in Steven Universe Garnet is completely unafraid to be herself, no matter what others think of her. — Joseph Stanichar

31. Bobby Hill (King of the Hill) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1997
Creator: Mike Judge
Voice: Pamela Adlon
Hank might think his boy ain’t right, but he’s just fine by us. We like his self-confidence that doesn’t depend on innate talent or beauty. He’s comfortable in his own skin, and that often makes his daddy uncomfortable. — Josh Jackson

30. Betty Boop : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1930
Creators: Max Fleischer, Grim Natwick
Voices: Margie Hines, Mae Questel, various others
Though Betty seems like a product of the Roaring ’20s, it’s important to remember that she was actually the Queen of the Depression Era, a sexy reminder of better times and an avatar for a younger generation. —Josh Jackson

29. She-Ra : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1985
Creators: Larry DiTillio, J. Michael Straczynski
Voices: Melendy Britt, Aimee Carrero
Originally designed as a female counterpart to the ’80s cartoon superhero He-Man, She-Ra became a character with her own following and successful TV series, despite its corniness. However, the heroine got an unlikely reboot through Netflix in 2018, telling a much more complex and emotionally resonant story in Princesses of Power that took the likely accidental queer undertones of He-Man’s universe and translated them into intentionally queer-coded characters. — Joseph Stanichar

28. Korra (Avatar: The Legend of Korra) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2012
Creators: Michael Dante DiMartino, Bryan Konietzko
Voice: Janet Varney
The next Avatar after The Last Airbender’s Aang, Korra represented a slightly older, more mature reincarnation of the master of earth, water, fire and air. Instead of one evil Fire Lord to face off against, Korra spends the entirety of her series fighting to understand and address the problems facing Republic City and the world, while also discovering her own legacy and path. Her final scene in which she holds hands with another female character, Asami, may seem to be an understated form of LGBTQ+ representation when compared to others on this list, but it was an important first step that paved the way for future representation. —Joseph Stanichar

27. Pinky & the Brain (Animaniacs): My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1995
Creator: Tom Ruegger
Voices: Rob Paulsen, Maurice LaMarche
Plenty of cartoon characters have had ambitions for world domination, but no one else just wanted to be a benevolent dictator like The Brain. His not-so-reliant sidekick Pinky may cause The Brain constant headaches, but his enthusiasm and loyalty make him impossible not to love. —Josh Jackson

26. Bart Simpson (The Simpsons) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1987
Creator: Matt Groening
Voice: Nancy Cartwright
Every principal’s nightmare, this merry prankster’s only two real talents are skateboarding and troublemaking. —Josh Jackson

25. Harley Quinn : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1992
Creator: Paul Dini, Bruce Timm
Voices: Arleen Sorkin, Kaley Cuoco, various others
In an unconventional twist, Harley Quinn made her debut not in a comic book, but in the cartoon series Batman: The Animated Series. “In the script she was just an unnamed Joker “hench-wench” w/ no discernible personality,” Joker voice actor Mark Hamill shared recently. “When Arleen began reading her lines in that unforgettable voice so poignant & full of heart I nearly fell off my chair! She brought SO much more than was on the page & a legend was born.” That legend has continued through the villainess’ own adult-oriented series, starting in 2019. — Joseph Stanichar

24. Wile E. Coyote (Looney Tunes): My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1949
Creators: Chuck Jones, Michael Maltese
Voices: Mel Blanc, Seth MacFarlane, various others
Charlie Brown will never kick his football, and Wile E. will never catch the Roadrunner. These are among the first truths learned by any kid in America, even as they’re exposed to the beauties of the Western desert. His clever plans and box of oft-malfunctioning ACME tricks resulted in our favorite coyote falling off cliffs, getting crushed by stones, and at the center of crater-inducing explosions; no cartoon character suffered more for our entertainment. —Josh Jackson

23. Mordecai and Rigby (Regular Show): My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2010
Creator: J.G. Quintel
Voices: J.G. Quintel, William Salyers
“Don’t look at our crotches while we synchronize our watches!” That’s one of many lines from this duo that doesn’t make much more sense within context but is just as enjoyable. The 23-year-old blue jay and racoon have too much time on their hands and fill it by doing increasingly ridiculous and fantastical stunts, often going from mundane hijinks to galaxy-bending sci-fi within each episode. —Joseph Stanichar

22. Scrooge McDuck (DuckTales) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1947
Creator: Carl Barks
Voices: Dallas McKennon, Bill Thompson, Alan Young, David Tennant, various others
Scrooge McDuck has appeared in a dizzying number of Disney stories over the years, cementing his icon status as he stole the spotlight from nephew Donald and grandnephews Huey, Dewey, and Louie. Virulently anti-scallywag, hopelessly misanthropic, often seen diving into his pool of gold, Scrooge is laughing all the way to the bank. —Allison Keene

21. Rick and Morty : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2013
Creators: Justin Roiland, Dan Harmon
Voice: Justin Roiland
Based on a crude animation of Back to the Future’s Marty and Doc, Kayla Cobb described Rick and Morty best when she called it a “never-ending fart joke wrapped around a studied look into nihilism.” The pubescent Morty goes on trips throughout dimensions with his alcoholic, jaded grandfather Rick, who sees himself as an unstoppable force despite his underlying insecurities. Sadly, too many fans get the wrong lessons from Rick, unironically idolizing his toxic behavior. — Joseph Stanichar.

20. Tina Belcher (Bob’s Burgers) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2011
Creator: Loren Bouchard
Voice: Dan Mintz
With her anxious groans and her freaky friend fiction, Tina Belcher encapsulates the confused horny sadness of being a teen. That, plus her compassion and active imagination, often makes her the very heart of the excellent Bob’s Burgers. —Rae Nudson

19. Fred Flintstone (The Flintstones) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1960
Creators: William Hanna, Joseph Barbera
Voices: Alan Reed, Jeff Bergman, various others
The patriarch of his modern stone-age family, Fred proved that cartoons weren’t just for kids. Although the original series may seem tame by modern standards (and the Flintstones today are more known for promoting cereal and vitamins) it was among the most risque shows on TV in the ’60s. —Josh Jackson

18. Dr. Doofenshmirtz (Phineas and Ferb) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2007
Creators: Dan Povenmire, Jeff “Swampy” Marsh
Voice: Dan Povenmire
He may act like an evil scientist, but the truth is that Dr. Doofenshmirtz isn’t actually that bad — or smart. We love his back-story monologues about his childhood in Gimelschtump, Druselstien. We love his ridiculously named devices (the Ugly-Inator, the Age-Acclerator-Inator) and that his nemesis is a platypus. The subtleties of the relationship are pitch-perfect. When Perry busts in on Doofenshmirtz when his blind date is about to arrive, Perry accommodates his rival by pretending to be his pet (“She doesn’t know I have a nemesis”). And most of all, we love his songs. —Josh Jackson

17. Eric Cartman (South Park) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1997
Creators: Trey Parker, Matt Stone
Voice: Trey Parker
Who else but Eric Cartman could inspire 10 parallels with Ambrose Bierce’s The Devil’s Dictionary? This selfish, foul-mouthed, hippie-hating, cartoon brat is the antithesis of political correctness; an Archie Bunker for a new generation. Over the last two-and-a-half decades, he’s been the perfect vehicle for broaching taboos Americans are too terrified to engage in polite conversation. —Josh Jackson

16. Rocky and Bullwinkle (The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1959
Creators: Jay Ward, Alex Anderson, Bill Scott
Voice: June Foray, Bill Scott
The animation might not have been fancy, but the scripts were funny as Rocky and Bullwinkle fended off threats from the very Eastern European-sounding Pottsylvania. —Josh Jackson

15. Sterling Archer (Archer) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2009
Creator: Adam Reed
Voice: H. Jon Benjamin
James Bond with Mommy issues, Sterling Archer’s crass debauchery made for some of the best transgressive and subversive antics on TV, but only because a surprising compassion would occasionally pop through his narcissistic playboy exterior. And as he’s done in Home Movies, Bob’s Burger’s, Family Guy and so many other animated comedies, H. Jon Benjamin’s performance will constantly have you laughing as Archer casually drinks his way through another misguided spy mission. —Josh Jackson

14. Blossom, Bubbles, and Buttercup (The Powerpuff Girls) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1998
Creator: Craig McCracken
Voices: Cathay Cavadini, Tara Strong, E. G. Daily, various others
The ultimate vanguard of “you can be cute and still kick ass,” the funny and fierce Powerpuff Girls arrived on the 90s cartoon scene ready to inspire and delight a generation. No matter who you individually identified with the most, the ultimate lesson was that working together is the strongest play. —Allison Keene

13. Winnie the Pooh : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1926
Creators: A. A. Milne, E. H. Shepard
Voice: Sterling Holloway, Hal Smith, Jim Cummings
Beloved as he was in book form, for many, Winnie-the-Pooh’s Disney adventures are the best remembered iterations of this Silly Ol’ Bear. Beyond his big heart and inherent sweetness, Winnie the Pooh also normalized having an insatiable sweet tooth. — Allison Keene

12. Finn the Human and Jake the Dog (Adventure Time) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2010
Creator: Pendleton Ward
Voices: Jeremy Shada, John DiMaggio
You just can’t separate this dynamic duo, our two plucky heroes from the Land of Ooo whose humor, pathos, loyalty, and bravery elevated this wonderful, surreal, emotionally-deep series into must-see status for all ages. —Allison Keene

11. BoJack Horseman : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2014
Creator: Raphael Bob-Waksberg
Voice: Will Arnett
Will Arnett’s anthropomorphized, misanthropic horse has one of the most complicated, profound and deeply felt redemption arcs of any TV character in history. He was damaged and caused damage wherever he went, but we could love him even when he didn’t love himself. Never has a cartoon tackled such deep and difficul

10. Steven Universe : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2013
Creator: Rebecca Sugar
Voice: Zach Callison

Most cartoon characters never grow up, staying the same youthful age no matter how many seasons their show gets. Not so with Steven Universe. Rebecca Sugar’s titular character grows up almost in real time, acquiring new powers and learning more about himself as the son of a human and magical gem from an alien planet. This is heightened in the sequel series Steven Universe Future, in which the now 16-year-old Steven struggles with mental health issues rarely discussed in cartoons for any age. In a show all about loving yourself for who you are, Steven demonstrates how difficult that can actually be. —Joseph Stanichar

09. Zuko (Avatar: The Last Airbender) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 2005
Creators: Michael Dante DiMartino, Bryan Konietzko
Voice: Dante Basco

That’s right: Not Aang, but Zuko! Watching Zuko’s first and last episodes, they don’t even seem to be the same character. The former is a stuck-up prince in a ponytail, unable to contain his rage and angst. The latter is a more emotionally intelligent character, embracing his uncle in a teary plea for forgiveness. Yet when watched chronologically, the transformation between the two is seamless. Shaped by both hate and love, Zuko’s story is tragic yet uplifting, creating not only one of the best characters not just in animation, but television as a whole. — Joseph Stanichar

08. Leonardo, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Donatello (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1984
Creators: Kevin Eastman, Peter Laird
Voices: Cam Clarke, Barry Gordon, Rob Paulsen, Townsend Coleman, various others

For the purposes of this list, we’re focusing on the OG crew who became iconic for 90s kids, these radical pizza-eating ninja-style fighters with a rat for a sensei, yet elegantly named after some of history’s greatest artists. It’s impossible to pick a “best” turtle for the list, because it’s all down to individual personality. Together, though, they are essential to pop culture history in all of their forms (including as one of the pinnacles of “the show is for the toy”). — Allison Keene

7. Scooby-Doo and Shaggy RogersScooby-Doo and Shaggy Rogers: My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1969
Creators: Joe Ruby, Ken Spears
Voices: Casey Kasem, Don Messick, various others

They never outright state it, but we’re pretty sure there’s something… hallucinogenic in those “Scooby Snacks.” Juxtaposed with the rest of the Scooby Gang, Shaggy and Scoob seem to be pretty useless, eating and lazing about most of the time and screaming in terror when confronted with anything spooky. And yet they’re the easiest to love. Throughout all of Scooby-Doo’s many adaptations, this duo of man and dog remains timeless. —Joseph Stanichar

6. Mickey Mouse : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1928
Creators: Walt Disney, Ub Iwerks
Voices: Walt Disney, Bret Iwan, various others

It’s easy to lose sight of the cartoon character Mickey in the shadow of the mascot for the Disney empire. But there might not be a Disney empire but for the charms of an enthusiastic, adventurous mouse. Nearly a century after Disney’s iconic “Steamboat Willie” short, the mouse will likely enter the public domain in 2024. But after kickstarting an unfathomably rich $173 billion empire, that seems more than fair. —Josh Jackson

5. SpongeBob Squarepants : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1999
Creator: Stephen Hillenburg
Voice: Tom Kenny

This titular sponge’s nautical nonsense may not be what many kids’ parents wished for, but two decades of being on the air have cemented Tom Kenny’s iconic laugh into the minds of audiences across the globe. Nothing proved this more than when creator Stephen Hillenburg passed away in 2018, igniting a movement to memorialize him at the Super Bowl with the song “Sweet Victory” from one of its best episodes, “Band Geeks.” Fans may have been snubbed there, but Hillenburg’s legacy continues to live on through the naive sponge’s everlasting popularity. —Joseph Stanichar

4. Tom and Jerry : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1941
Creators: William Hanna, Joseph Barbera
Voices: William Hanna, various others

Silent film mostly went away with the advent of the talkies, but Hanna and Barbera’s Tom and Jerry didn’t need dialogue to enrapture generations of children. The 114 shorts were created between 1940 and 1958, but they feel like they belonged to my childhood in the late ’70s, just like they’ll feel like a part of my kids’ childhoods when they grow up alongside the 2014 adaptation of the classic cat-and-mouse hijinks. —Josh Jackson

3. Charlie Brown and Snoopy (Peanuts) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1950
Creator: Charles M. Schulz
Voice: Peter Robbins, Bill Melendez, various others

Not every character survived the move from print to the TV screen, but Charlie Brown and his dog Snoopy absolutely came to life through a handful of TV specials and subsequent series. Snoopy’s Red Baron dreams, friendship with Woodstock and crush on Lucy won the hearts of kids, whereas older audiences connected with Charlie. Hapless Charlie Brown is as sympathetic a character as we’ve ever had, real or animated. Unlucky in love, untalented and trusting to a fault—we pull for him, knowing it’s all for naught. —Josh Jackson

2. Homer J. Simpson (The Simpsons) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1987
Creator: Matt Groening
Voice: Dan Castellaneta

The first two seasons of The Simpsons were focused on Bart, but as it became Homer-centric, the show became something truly special. He’s the everyman at our laziest, hungriest, dumbest, and drunkest. Yet thanks to good heart buried under all those doughnuts, he’s also the hero that repeatedly saves the day—or at least restores everything to a status quo which has endured for three-and-a-half decades and over thirty Halloween “Treehouse of Horror” specials, the 30th of which aired as the series’ 666th episode. —Josh Jackson

1. Bugs Bunny (Looney Tunes) : My Best 50 Favorite Cartoon!

Created: 1940
Creators: Ben Hardaway, Tex Avery
Voices: Mel Blanc, Jeff Bergman, various others

The coolest cat in cartoon history is a rabbit. Or a hare. That slight taxonomic difference was never addressed during his many antics, but he held an enviable insouciance through them all, whether being hunted with Elmer Fudd’s shotgun, Yosemite Sam’s pistols or Marvin Martian’s ACME Disintegration Pistol. The familiar face of Warner Bros. only had one flaw: a poor sense of direction (especially when tunneling through New Mexico). — Josh Jackson


New Born Screening || NBS


New Born Screening (NBS) Test : Newborn screening involves testing infant to enable early detection of treatable metabolic disorders so that infants can be identified and treated before problems occur. Newborn Screening tests are done using whole blood drawn from the heel of the babies and collected on a special filter paper. This is a very simple and fairly painless method of pricking the heel of the baby to draw a very small amount of blood.

Instrument use in NBS Lab : Read this operating manual completely before using the equipment for the first time. Where applicable, follow instructions for use of accessories..

  • Microplate incubator/shaker ( Thermomixer)
  • Microplate washer
  • Microplate flurotometer
  • Microtiter plate spectrophotometer
  1. DBS (Dry Blood Spot ) Puncture :  The dried blood spot (DBS) method is an approach to blood sample processing whereby a drop of blood is placed onto a designated filter paper (DBS card) from which target compounds are extracted for quantitative determination. 3 MM Dia , 1/8″ inch round punch for  the DBS card  sample  and easy use.
DBS (Dry Blood Spot ) Puncture

2. Microplate incubator/shaker ( Thermomixer) : We can use the ThermoMixer  to perform the simultaneous mixing and temperature control of the sample material.


The thermoblocks can be used with the following lab vessels:

  • Micro test tubes with volumes of 0.2 mL to 5.0 mL
  • Conical tubes with volumes of 15 mL to 50 mL
  • Microplates and deepwell plates with any kind of bottom shape
  • PCR plates in 96 and 384-well format
  • Tubes with a diameter of 11.0 mm to 11.9 mm
  • Cryogenic tubes with volumes of 2.0 mL

      In this SOP we can discussed only Microplate and deepwell plate only

Attaching the thermoblock

When we attach the thermoblock, the device automatically recognizes the mounted thermoblock. The mixing frequency is automatically limited to the maximum value for the thermoblock being used.

First only attach the rear edge of the thermoblock. The writing must face to the front. Push the front edge of the thermoblock down.g the thermoblock :

The thermoblock and the heating/cooling plate can be very hot after heating and cause burns. Allow the thermoblock and the heating/cooling plate to cool down completely before removing the thermoblock.

Inserting the plate: 

  • When inserting microplates, make sure that the height sensor is not covered.
  • Take care that the height sensor does not get contaminated.
  • Only use closed plates.
  • Insert the plate with the back edge first. Then press it down at the front.
  • To ensure uniform temperature control in all wells, place the lid on the thermoblock.

Temperature, speed and time setting:

  • The time mode is set to Time Control
  • To switch off the mixing function, select the 0 rpm setting with the speed arrow keys
  • (▼ before 300 rpm or ▲ after 3 000 rpm).
  • Set the temperature control duration (time) with the time arrow keys.
  • Set the temperature with the temp arrow keys.
  • To start the time counter, press the start/stop key.
  • The symbol  flashes on the display
  • The temperature control duration is counted down.
  • The display shows the remaining temperature control duration and the actual temperature/set temperature.
  • A signal sounds after the temperature control duration has elapsed.

NOTE : Polystyrene microplates melt at temperatures above 70 °C. Polypropylene deepwell plates deform at temperatures above 80 °C. Deformed  p lates may become detached from the thermoblock or are more difficult to remove. Temper polystyrene microplates up to 70 °C max. If you are heating deepwell plates above 80 °C, do not exceed the mixing frequency of 1000 rpm.

Temperature control

Peltier cooling allows samples to be cooled to 15 °C below ambient temperature.

The temperature range can be set from 1 °C to 110 °C.


Depending on the utilized thermoblock, we can select mixing frequencies between 300 rpm and 3000 rpm.

Anti-spill technology prevents lid wetting and cross contamination.

3.  Microplate washer :  

We use Microplate Strip Washer provides microplate priming and washing for ELISA, fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays, cellular and agglutination assays.

It is considered good laboratory practice to run laboratory samples according to SOPs and test to be conducted.

 Microplate washer

System Startup:

To turn on the on/off switch on the right side of the base. Automatically will perform a self-test, displaying the screens shown below until initialization is complete. During this time, all keys are inactive.

Define Wash Program:

To define a Wash program, follow the menu path shown here. Some of these items are options and some are prompts. The options are described below.


Run Wash Program

Before running any program, make sure that the microplate or the holder containing the microstrips is properly seated in the plate carrier. To run a Wash program, follow the menu path shown here. Some of these items are options and some are prompts. The options are described below



Perform Daily, Overnight, and Periodic Maintenance

  • Cleaning the manifold tubes and chambers.
  • Cleaning the plate carrier.
  • Cleaning the supply, rinse, and waste bottles.
  • Rinsing and checking the tubing and the check valves.

4. Microplate fluorometer (Microplate multimode reader) :

We use monochromator and filter-based detection techniques for fluorescence microplate detection. For this we use Tecan’s Infinite 200, it is possible to use a full range of leading detection technologies in one easy-to-use in this modular instrument. (For more information please read Tecan’s Infinite 200 manual)

Microplate fluorometer


Fluorescence Intensity (FI) may also be used to measure Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). For some microplate applications, FRET offers advantages over FI and TRF, because they simplify assay preparation. These preferably apply for mix and measure binding studies. Compared to Fluorescence Polarization (FP), FRET requires both binding partners to be labeled in a suitable way. On the other hand, FRET may utilize TRF labels for increased sensitivity, then being referenced as HTRF (Homogeneous TRF).

     Fluorescent molecules emit light of specific wavelength when struck by light of shorter wavelength (Stokes Shift). In particular, a single fluorescent molecule can contribute one fluorescence photon (quantum of light). This is a part of the energy, which has been absorbed before (electronic excitation), but could not be released quickly enough into thermal energy. The average time it takes between excitation and emission is called the fluorescence lifetime. For many fluorescent molecular species, fluorescence lifetime is on the order of nanoseconds (prompt fluorescence). After excitation, fluorescence emission occurs with a certain probability (quantum yield), which depends on the fluorescent species and its environmental conditions.

Use of Microplate flurotometer  :

In NBS lab tecan Infinite 200 PRO is mainly used for fluorescence reading like G6PD, PKU, Galactose, Biotinidase, 17-OHP, IRT, and hTSH etc.

Programming for test reading:

Start the system computer

Switch on the  tecan Infinite 200 PRO before software

Open megellan software program (A dialogs box open)

Click to the create/edit a method (A dialogs box open)

Click NEW (A dialogs box open)

Select the number of strip (the test being performed)

Select wavelength

Select gain and put its value

Click on choose fluorescent parameter (A dialogs box open)

Select the plate and lay out to the test, standard and QC.

Enter conc. value of plate layout (according to the kit insert)

Click the standard curve (A dialogs box open)

Select analysis type

Select analysis type

Click next

Save program

Measurement test reading:

Click start measurement (Home menu)

Click next

Select save program

Click start

Measurement starts and out result with graph

Click next

Save result

View to the test results:

Click Evaluate result (Home menu)

Select the drive and click to test and see it.


We use flowing table for programming:

Test nameExcitation wavelength   Emission wavelength  GainStd. Curve
TSH320 nm400/405 nmOptimalLinear regression
17-OHP320 nm400/405 nmManual 30Four Parameter
IRT320 nm405 nmManual 30Cubic Spine
BIOTINIDASE355/360 nm460/465 nmManual 30/40Linear regression
G6PD355/360 nm460 nmOptimalCubic spine
PKU390 nm485 nmManual 30Linear regression
GALACTOSE355 nm460 nmManual 30Linear regression

5. Microtiter plate spectrophotometer: For MSUD plate Reading we use BioTek’s monochromator-based Eon Microplate Spectrophotometer combines high performance and high value in microplate-based absorbance readings. Eon’s monochromator-based optics allow flexible, filter-free 200-999 nm wavelength selection in 1 nm increments, and spectral scanning for 6- to 384-well microplates.

Programming for test reading of MSUD :

Start the system computer

Switch on the BioTek’s Eon Microplate Spectrophotometer

Open Gen 5 software program (A dialogs box open)

Select experiments than click New (A dialogs box open)

Select standard Protocol than click ok (A dialogs box open, left side)

Click on the Procedure (A dialogs box open)

Click the read (A dialogs box open)

Observe 1. Detection method: Absorbance,

          2. Read type: Endpoint/Kinetic,

  3. Optical type: Monochromators are selected

                             Optical type: Monochromators are selected

Select wavelength 1 and fill 550 and then click ok and again click ok (previous page)

Click Plate layout (A dialogs box open)

Select Standard curves and Sample and then click next (A dialogs box open)

Fill Concentration of STD/CAL and Unit and click next

Click Finish (A dialogs box open)

on STD and select STD and sample column

Click ok 

Click on Data Reduction (A dialogs box open)

Click on the Standard curve (A dialogs box open)

Select X-Axis Concentration and Y-axis 550 and then click ok again click ok (previous page)

Save program

Measurement test reading:

Click plate option (A dialogs box open)

Click Read plate 1 option (A dialogs box open)

Click ok and measurement start

After measurement Result show as a dialogs box

Click curve option and see std. curve

Note the result and save the result.

Lab diagnosis of NBS:

We use following procedure in lab for diagnosis of NBS

  • Hospital staff submits NBS samples to the lab staff of the department of biochemistry (D-BLOCK) at the sample accession room, which is labeled by a lab technician and stored in the refrigerator at 40C temperature.
  • The laboratory staff of NBS collect to the NBS sample from D-Block and fills all the information (provide on the NBS card) in the NBS master register and then test performed all the parameters as per the number of NBS samples according our SOPs.
  • After running the NBS test by the lab, the report are dispatched within 7 to 15 days.
  • Must to inform test result (if positive) telephonic on urgent basis to parents for proper treatment without any dealey.

Lab Parameter: The parameters to be applied by the lab are as follows

  • G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase)
  • PKU (Phenylketonuria)
  • Galactose
  • Biotinidase
  • 17-OHP (17-OHP-Progesterone)
  • IRT ( immunoreactive Trypsinogen )
  • hTSH (human thyrotropin/human thyroid-stimulating hormone)
  • MSUD (Maple Syrup Urine Disease) 

Required instruments and materials:

The equipment and materials below are used in the NBS test.

Non consumable material:

 1. Disk puncher with a diameter of 3 mm to cut off paper disk of dried blood spot.

  2. Microplate incubator/shaker ( Thermomixer)

  3. Microplate washer

  4.  Microplate flurotometer

  5. Microtiter plate spectrophotometer

  6. Adjustable micropipettes with disposable tips (10-100/200ul, 200-1000ul, and up to 10ml)

  7. Precision pipettes (multi-channel pipettes 50- 300ul)

  8. Graduate measuring cylinder for reagent dilution

  9. Vials to store the diluted reagents

10.  Discarding jar

Consumable Materials :

1. Distilled or deionized water, preferably sterile

2. Absorbent paper (Tissue paper and bloating absorbed paper)

3. Absolute alcohol (ethanol)

 4. Round bottom microtiter plate

 5. Flat-bottomed microtiter plate 

 6. Sterile container to prepare reagents

 7. Sodium hypochlorite solution

 8. Disposable powder free gloves

9. Kits and reagents (available in kits)

10. Sanitizer/ 70% alcohol

Test and method


G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) : This test is done for the determination of the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase .


         G-6-P+ + NADP+     ->G-6-PD ->       6-phosphogluconolatone + NADPH + H     

 NADP+ is reduced by  g-6-pd in the presence of G-6-P  and the rate of formation of NADPH is proportional to the G-6-PD activity.                                                                                                     

Method: (Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in kit.)

Preliminary Preparations

Bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) before starting the assay, except the stopping solution which should be kept at +4°C.

Prestep : Solubilize the substrate vial with 16ml of substrate buffer. This is sufficient for 96 wells.(Stability of opened and diluted reagents at +20C to +80C  for one month).

Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells.

Add 150ul of reconstituted substrate into each well (Make sure that the disks are completely soaked in the liquid before incubation).

Cover the plate and incubate 30 min. at RT (+20 to +25°C) on Microplate incubator/shaker in dark with shaking speed of 1150 rpm.

Add 150 µl of cold (+40C stop solution (make sure that the disks are completely soaked in the liquid otherwise remove the floating disks before measurement)

Measure immediately the fluorescence (ex. 355 nm, em 460 nm, and standard curve cubic spine).

Reference Value : >3 IU/gHb blood


PKU (Phenylalanine): This test is done for the determination of the deficiency of classical phenylketonuria(PKU) or phenylalanine hydroxylase(PAH),oligophrenia phenylpyruvica,Follings disease.


Phenylalanine eluted from dried blood spots forms a Fluorescent compound with Ninehydrin.The Flurometric   response is greatly enhanced by the prescence of a dipeptide L-leucyl-L-alanine. The pH during the reaction is strictly controlled by succinate buffer at 5.8+/- 0.1 in order to optimize fluorescence and maximize specificity copper reagent is added to stabilize the fluorescent complex and enhance the signal.

Method:  (Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit.)

On a separate plate (provide by lab), Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells.

Add 80µl of 80% ethyl alcohol to each well, cover the plate and elute phenylalanine for 30 min at room temperature (+20 to +25°C) on a Microplate incubator/shaker with shaking speed 900rpm.

Transfer 50 µl eluates with a multichannel pipette into a reaction plate (provide with kit).

Add 50 µl of reaction mixture, seal tightly with a new incubation cover, shake for 1 min at room temperature and incubate 60min at 60°C without shaking.

Add 200 µl of cold copper reagent to each well.

Incubate the plate for 15 min at room temperature.

Read the fluorescence within 15-30 min after addition of the copper reagent (using fluorometer with filters excitation 390nm/emission 485 nm and standard curve linear curve).

Reference Value : <2.5 mg/dl blood


Galactose: This test is done for the determination of the total galactose for diagnosed of rare genetic disorder  called galactosemia.


Galactose-1-phosphate + H2O       –>AFOS->       galactose  + phosphate

Galactose + NAD      ->GDH->     galactono-lactone + NADH + H+

1). Alkaline phosphate cleaves galactose from galactose-1-phosphate. 

2). In this step glactose serves as a substrate for galactose dehydrogenase which reduces nicotinamidedinucleotide to form a flurogenic product.

The determination is based on two reactions

    Fluorescence intensity of the reaction is proportional to the amount of galactose. Cold copper reagent stabilized to the fluorescent product.

Method: Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit.

Preliminary Preparations

Bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) before starting the assay, except the stopping solution which should be kept at +4°C.

On a separate plate (provide by lab), Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells.

Add 20ul of 80% ethanol into each well and incubate 60 min at +37°C, do not cover the plate (It should be completely dried after incubation).

(Dissolve AFOS in 24 ml & NAD in 24ml of reaction buffer in separate vials & stored at +20C to +80C. This is for 2 plates = 192 wells. (100ul of GDH is ready to use for 192 wells)

Prepare the reaction mixture just before use. According to the number of wells (calculate amount of AFOS, NAD & GDH to be added).

Add 200ul of reaction mixture into each well. Make sure that the disks are completely soaked in the liquid before incubation.

Cover the plate and incubate 30min at 37°C with shaking speed of 900 rpm.

Add 100ul of cold (+4°C) stopping solution. Transfer 200ul of the final product into a white plate (separate plate provide with kit).

Measure the fluorescence (ex.355 nm, em. 460 nm) between 15-60 minutes after the transfer and standard curve as linear curve.

Reference Value : <17 mg/dl blood


Biotinidase:  This test is done for the Fluorometric enzyme immunoassay for the determination of the biotinidase for diagnosed of biotinidase deficiency.


The Biotinidase enzyme (fount in the blood sample) utilize biotin-6-aminoquinoline(BAQ) as a substrate. During the enzymetic reaction, substrate is cleaved to fluorescent product 6-Aminoquinoline (6-AQ) and biotin is produced and the reaction is terminated by adding ethanol to the wells and the fluorescent measured with microplate fluorometer.

Method: Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit.

bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) before starting the assay

Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells.

Add 35ul of reconstituted substrate solution to each well.

Tap the plate or shake slowly (600rpm) for 1min. Make sure that the disks are properly soaked and cover the plate.

Incubate at +50°C for 4 hrs without shaking.

Remove the cover and add 225ul of absolute ethenol (not included to the kit) to each well immediately.

Shake the plate 5min at 600rpm (Do not cover).

Incubate the plate for 30 min at room temperature (No need to remove the disks)

Measure immediately fluorescence at ex. 355 em, 460 nm and find linear standard curve

Reference Value : >50 U blood


17-OHP (17-OHP-Progesterone): This test is done for the Fluorometric enzyme immunoassay for the determination of the 17-hydroxyprogesterone for diagnosed Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).


17-OHP-progesterone (from the patient sample) competes with the horseradish peroxidase. 17-OHP-progesterone conjugate, which binding to specific antibodies attached to the polystyrene surface of the microplate wells.

                  Residual patient sample and unbound conjugate are removed by washing. . The enzymatic reaction is performed with fluorogenic  substrate solution ( 3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid , H2O2)  is performed ,  reaction stoped by adding glycine buffer. Measure Fluorescence at 320 em. 405 nm no later than 60 min. standard curve –four parameter logistic curve. The fluorescence intensity is conversely proportional to the concentration of 17-hydroxy-Progestrone.

Method : Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit.           

Preliminary Preparations

Bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) at least 30 min. before starting the assay

Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells

(Dilute HRP conjugate via-2 with conjugate diluent vial-3 (as ratio 1:100) just before use)

Add 200ul of 17-OHP-HRP conjugate (in dark). Make sure that the disks are properly soaked.

Cover the plate and incubate 3hrs 30 min at 25°C with shaking 900 rpm.

Remove the disks and liquid and wash 4 x 300ul. (wash program 3)

(Dilute HPPA Diluent vial-4b with HPPA substrate vial-4a (as ratio 1:50) just before use)

Add 200ul of substrate solution, cover the plate and incubate 60min. at 4°C in dark without shaking.

(Dilute stop solution (1:1) with distilled water.)

Add 100ul of stop solution, measure Fluorescence at 320 em. 405 nm no later than 60 min.

standard curve –four parameter logistic curve.

Reference Value : <35 nmol/L blood


IRT ( immunoreactive Trypsinogen ) : This test is Flurometric enzyme immunoassay for determination of human immunoreactive trypsinogen for primary test for screening cystic fibrosis (CF) in the new born babies. 


IRT FEIA is a solid phase fluorometric enzyme immunoassay in which IRT is eluated from dried blood discs. It simultaneously forms a sandwich between the solid phase, which is coated with an antibody that recognizes IRT-1 and another antibody, which is labeled with HRP.

                        Residual patient sample and unbound conjugate are removed by washing. . The enzymatic reaction is performed with fluorogenic  substrate solution ( 3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid , H2O2)  is performed ,  reaction stoped by adding glycine buffer and measerd with microplate fluorometer (Ex.320nm,Em.405nm)  and found standerd curve as  cubic spine curve.

Method: Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit.               

Preliminary Preparations

Bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) at least 30 min. before starting the assay.

Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells

(Dilute HRP conjugate via-2 with conjugate diluent vial-3 (as ratio 1:100) just before use)

Add 150ul of anti-IRT1-HRP conjugate solution. Make sure that the disks are properly soaked.

Cover the plate and incubate. 3hrs at room temperature in dark with shaking speed of 900 rpm.

Remove the disks and liquid, then wash 5 x 300ul. (wash program 9)

(Dilute HPPA Diluent vial-4b with HPPA substrate vial-4a (as ratio 1:50) just before use)

Add 150µl of substrate solution, Cover the plate and incubate 60 min at room temperature in the dark shaking 650 rpm.

(Dilute stop solution (1:1) with distilled water. Add 100ul of stop solution.)

Add 100ul of stop solution. Measure immediately fluorescence at ex 320 ,em.405 nm. Standard curve Cubic spline curve.

Reference Value : <70 µg/L blood


hTSH (human thyrotropin/human thyroid-stimulating hormone) : This test is Flurometric enzyme immunoassay for determination of human thyrotropin for primary test for screening Cogenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the new born babies. 


 IRT FEIA is a solid phase fluorometric enzyme immunoassay in which hTSHT is eluated from dried blood discs. It simultaneously forms a sandwich between the solid phase, which is coated with an antibody that recognizes α-subunit of hTSH and another antibody, which is labeled with HRP.                                    

         Residual patient sample and unbound conjugate are removed by washing. . The enzymatic reaction is performed with fluorogenic  substrate solution ( 3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid , H2O2)  is performed ,  reaction stoped by adding glycine buffer and measerd with microplate fluorometer (Ex.320nm,Em.405nm)  and found standerd curve as  linear  curve.

Method: Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit.               

Preliminary Preparations

Bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) at least 30 min. before starting the assay.

Punch out single 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC into the microplate wells

(Dilute HRP conjugate via-2 with conjugate diluents vial-3 (as ratio 1:100) just before use)

Add 200ul of anti-TSH-HRP conjugate solution. Make sure that the disks are properly soaked.

Cover the plate and incubate. 3hrs at room temperature in dark with shaking speed of 650 rpm.

Remove the disks and liquid, then wash 4 x 300ul. (wash program 01)

(Dilute HPPA Diluent vial-4b with HPPA substrate vial-4a (as ratio 1:50) just before use)

Add 200µl of substrate solution, Cover the plate and incubate 60 min at room temperature in the dark shaking 650 rpm.

(Dilute stop solution (1:1) with distilled water. Add 100ul of stop solution.)

Add 100ul of stop solution. Measure immediately fluorescence at ex 320 ,em.405 nm. Standard curve is linear curve.

 Reference Value : <10mIU/L blood


MSUD (Maple Syrup Urine Disease): This test is done for the determination of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in new born.


          Leucin + NAD+      (Catalysed by Leucin dehydrogenase ) ->       α – ketoisocaprote +     NAD+

             NADH+   + NBT (ox yellow)     —————>          NAD+ + formazon(violate)

      (catalysed by a solution of an intermediate electron receptor, measured at 550 nm)

The leucine and BCAAs (leucine, isoleucin and valine – are often called the branched-chain amino acid) are eluted with trichloroacetic acid (Elution buffer) from dried blood spot. After elution, the eluted sample is combined with the enzyme reagent Leucine dehydrogenase. This enzyme reagent catalyzed the NADA-dependent oxidative determination of leucine and L-BCAAs  to  α – ketoisocaprote acid. The NADH produced react with a color reagent in which a tetrazolium salt gets reduced producing a distinct color. This color measured by colorimetcally with a photometer at 550 nm. Color is directly proportional to Leucin and BCAAs.

Method: Please read kit insert (kit manual), provided by manufacturer in the kit. 

Preliminary Preparations

Bring the reagents to room temperature (20 to 25°C) at least 30 min. before starting the assay.

On a separate U bottom plate, punch out double (two disk in each well) 3mm disks from patient samples as well as calibrator and QC.

Add 100 µl elution buffer in each well and incubate for 30 minutes at RT with shaking  700 RPM

Transfer 40 µl elute in another flat bottom microplate

(Prepare enzyme-coenzyme solution, add 400 µl enzyme, 400 µl co-enzyme and 200 µl diluting buffer for 10 test)

Add 100µl of this enzyme-coenzyme reagent in each well and incubate at RT for 30 minutes without shaking

(Prepare color reagent mixture for 80 µl color booster and 800 µl color reagent for 10 test)

Add 80µl of this color reagent mixture in each well and incubate at RT in dark mode for 10 minutes without shaking.

Measure immediately at RT and kipping away from the light at 550 nm optimal endpoint single measurement and find Standard curve is linear curve.

 Reference Value: < 4.12mg/dl blood



  • Wear disposable gloves while handling sample ant performed test
  • Do not mix or interchange  reagents of different lots
  • Do not use reagents beyond their expiry date
  • Use thoroughly clean glassware
  •  Once test has been started, all subsequent step should be performed without interruption , So run only one test in a time
  • Do not pipette reagent by mouth
  • Do not smoke, eat, drink during assay

Cause error

  1. Flat Calibration curve and low fluorescence
  2. Reagents are deteriorated due to contamination or improper storage
  3. Reagents are not warmed up to room temperature
  4. Incubation time of reaction is too short
  5. Fluorometer wavelength setting not correct.
  6. Poor precision
  7. Liquid handling devices are not properly calibrated
  8. Improper wasing due to blocking of washer tips by the filter paper dust
  9. The plate is allowed to stay too long after washing (drying of the plate)
  10. NBS samples
  11. Uneven distribution of blood in the samples.

Discarding material after use

  • NBS Card (Dry blood spot): Discard all NBS sample must be autoclave for at least 1 hour at 1210C, then after that it should be discarded in the yellow color biohazard bag.
  • Sodium hypochlorite must be added to liquid wastes to reach a final concentration of 3%, Let the hypochlorite act for at least 30 minutes.
  • Wear disposable gloves while handling sample ant performed test
  • Do not mix or interchange  reagents of different lots
  • Do not use reagents beyond their expiry date
  • Use thoroughly clean glassware
  •  Once test has been started, all subsequent step should be performed without interruption , So run only one test in a time
  • Do not pipette reagent by mouth
  • Do not smoke, eat, drink during assay

Cause error

  1. Flat Calibration curve and low fluorescence
  2. Reagents are deteriorated due to contamination or improper storage
  3. Reagents are not warmed up to room temperature
  4. Incubation time of reaction is too short
  5. Fluorometer wavelength setting not correct.
  6. Poor precision
  7. Liquid handling devices are not properly calibrated
  8. Improper wasing due to blocking of washer tips by the filter paper dust
  9. The plate is allowed to stay too long after washing (drying of the plate)
  10. NBS samples
  11. Uneven distribution of blood in the samples.

Discarding material after use

  • NBS Card (Dry blood spot): Discard all NBS sample must be autoclave for at least 1 hour at 1210C, then after that it should be discarded in the yellow color biohazard bag.
  • Sodium hypochlorite must be added to liquid wastes to reach a final concentration of 3%, Let the hypochlorite act for at least 30 minutes.


Can certain foods suppress your appetite?

certain foods suppress your appetite

Some foods promise the ability to stave off hunger pangs. Can any foods really suppress our appetite?

Can certain foods suppress your appetite?

It’s likely that your weekly shop is packed with packaging promising that the food inside will taste great, stay fresh and be good for you. You might also find some products telling you they’ll fill you up for longer. But is it really possible for a food to suppress our appetites?

While some research suggests that consuming some foods, such as chilli peppers and ginger, can make us feel less hungry afterwards, these studies often use large quantities of foods and test the effects on animals, says Gary Frost, lead of the Imperial Nutrition and Food Network at Imperial College London. Translating these effects over to humans hasn’t happened, he adds.

But one study looked at the appetite-suppressing properties of capsaicin in chilli peppers, (the active ingredient that gives chillies their heat) using quantities that more closely resemble an average human diet. Mary-Jon Ludy, associate professor of food and nutrition at Bowling Green State University in Ohio, US, experimented first at home, by adding chilli to her meals until she decided what was a palatable and realistic amount for someone living in the US Midwest.

Mary-Jon Ludy, associate professor of food and nutrition at Bowling Green State University in Ohio

She then invited 25 people into her lab six times, and she fed them bowls of tomato soup. After the soup, they stayed in the lab for four-and-a-half hours so their appetite and energy expenditure could be regularly measured. They were then served another meal and told they could eat as much as they wanted.

When they consumed soup containing 1g of chilli, the participants burned an extra 10 calories in the four-and-a-half hours afterwards. Participants who usually only ate chilli once a month reported having fewer thoughts about food afterwards, and ate 70 calories less when served the second meal, compared to those who usually ate chilli three times a week or more.

Ludy ran the same experiment with chilli in a capsule instead of soup, but the increase in fat-burning was only found after they ate the chilli-tomato soup.

“This says something important about experiencing the oral tingling/burning sensation,” she says.

Consuming some spicy food, such as curries with capsaicin-containing chilli, could help curb appetite

However, burning 10 extra calories after a spicy meal is minute, and won’t have any long-term effects. Frost points out that studies like this, showing short-term effects on appetite, haven’t been able to show any long-lasting effects.

In accordance with this study, a review of 32 studies found that chilli, as well as green tea, hasn’t been consistently found to suppress appetite.

Another staple in our diets that’s been rumoured to make us less hungry is coffee. Matthew Schubert, assistant professor in the department of kinesiology at California State University, reviewed what research has been done so far to see if there could be something in coffee that suppresses our appetite.

Some studies found that drinking coffee led to a slightly faster rate of gastric emptying, which is the time it takes for a meal to move from the stomach to the small intestine and is associated with increased hunger. But no studies showed anything specific happening physiologically that could dampen appetite.

Fibre is known to make us feel fuller for longer

Even if future research does uncover a way that coffee supresses our appetite, it would probably only translate to consuming 100 or 200 fewer calories a day, Schubert adds, which isn’t significant.

Aside from specific ingredients, researchers have also looked at macronutrients, and how they might influence our appetites. Fibre is known to make us feel fuller for longer, and some population studies show that as people eat more fibre, their weight gain slows down – but this is only when they’re eating really high amounts of fibre, says Frost.

“It’s recommended we consume 30g of dietary fibre per day, but most people in the UK consume around 15g. If you push it up to 30g you’d get an effect [on appetite] but it wears off after a while,” he says.

Eating more protein has been found to decrease appetite, but this was only found in a very small trial.

Green tea has long been thought of as an appetite suppressant, but evidence hasn’t been consistent

There has been a lot of research trying find out which macronutrients make you feel more full, but there’s no clear answer. Findings seem to suggest that protein is more likely to satiate you, but they’re not so clear and usually the effects are tiny, and it’s hard to compare across different types of macronutrients,” says Yann Cornil, associate professor of marketing and behavioural science at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada.

Yann Cornil, associate professor of marketing and behavioural science at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada.

Instead of looking to specific foods to decrease our appetites, we should make sure we’re drinking enough water, since this briefly pauses our appetite, says Martin Kohlmeier, professor of nutrition at Gillings School of Global Public Health in North Carolina, US.

Martin Kohlmeier, professor of nutrition at Gillings School of Global Public Health in North Carolina, US.

Research has found that people who drink two glasses of water before eating end up eating less.

If there was a food component that suppressed appetite, to survive you’d need to totally avoid it – Gary Frost

But any changes to our appetite on a physiological level will be small and short-lasting, Frost says, because it doesn’t make physiological sense that there would be a food that drives us to eat less.

“It’s only very recently that in our Western society we’ve had excess food,” says Frost. Throughout evolution we lived with very little food, and it came in fits and starts. Our physiology is geared to driving us to eat.

“If there was a food component that suppressed appetite, to survive you’d need to totally avoid it.”

Another reason that no food or drink could substantially suppress our appetite long-term is because our bodies are designed to maintain a near-constant weight, says Kohlmeier.

“The body has mechanisms that defend weight viciously. From an evolutionary perspective, the biggest risk to humanity was starvation, not just because it’d kill you but because it also weakens the body and makes you more vulnerable to infectious diseases,” he says.

Instead of looking for foods to curb appetite, we might be better off ensuring we’re drinking enough water, studies suggest

The system used by the body to regulate how much we consume is one of the most complex systems in the body, Kohlmeier adds.

“If you see the body as a big machine, with all the different components that need to come from the outside; you need to get enough water, macronutrients and micronutrients, on top of knowing what not to eat.”

There are several nutrients that will drive our appetite if we’re deficient in them, he adds.

“It’s a whole system you need to loop and rebuild constantly. How should anyone know what they need and what’s in which foods? There are very powerful important systems in place that drive appetite.”

Hunger is driven by beliefs, expectation and memory
Therefore, the best way to manage appetite is to have a balanced diet, so the body isn’t driven to eat more to make up for any deficiencies, Kohlmeimer says.

Balanced diet filled with all the nutrients and water you need.

The loophole here is how our appetite can be influenced psychologically, which has interested researchers for decades. A paper from 1987 explained that seeing and smelling food sends signals to the body to prepare to digest it. Food will have the biggest effect on appetite when we expect it to satiate us, the paper states.

Hunger is driven by beliefs, expectation and memory, says Cornil, mostly by how well you remember what you’ve eaten. This means that we eat less following what we perceive to be a bigger meal than if we believe we’ve eaten a smaller one.

One study found that labelling a meal as “filling” has been found to influence us to eat less compared to when the same meal is labelled “light“.

Your weekly shop might contain foods that promise to fill you up for longer, but it seems there’s only one way to work with your body’s evolutionary processes: eat a balanced diet filled with all the nutrients and water you need.

While you can’t cheat nature and stave off hunger for long, you can try to avoid craving those extra calories required to make up any nutrient deficiencies.

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Lab Technician MCQ || MLT (Previous Exam.)

Lab Technician MCQ (Previous Exam.)

Which of the following is a procoagulation protein?

Protein C
Protein S

Correct Answer :- Thrombin

Which test is used for confirmation of Rh negative blood group?

Casonis test
Du variant test
Coombs test
Sahlis test

Correct Answer :- Du variant test

Which bulb is used for estimation of serum bilirubin?

Wintrobe bulb
Flouride bulb
Plain bulb
EDTA bulb

Correct Answer :- Plain bulb

Commonest presentation in hookworm infection is

Abdominal pain

Correct Answer :- Anemia

Sudden development of itching of the scalp and difficulty in breathing after bee sting is an example of:-

Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity
Type IV hypersensitivity

Correct Answer :- Type I hypersensitivity

Following is TRUE regarding antigenic shift in Influenza virus:-

It happens because of point mutations in genes coding for either hemagglutinin or neuraminidase.
It is observed equally in all three types of Influenza strains.
It is responsible for occasional sporadic cases that happen throughout the year.
It results in emergence of a new subtype of virus.

Correct Answer :- It results in emergence of a new subtype of virus.

Thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) medium is an example of:

Transport medium
Enrichment medium
Enriched medium
Selective medium

Correct Answer :- Selective medium

Data in the population census report is:-

Ungrouped Data
Secondary Data
Grouped Data
Primary Data

Correct Answer :- Ungrouped Data

CA 125 is used in diagnosis of:-

Gall bladder cancer
Bronchogenic cancer
Ovarian cancer

Correct Answer :- Ovarian cancer

Rate limiting enzyme of Glycolysis is:-

All of these

Correct Answer :- Phosphofructokinase

Dystrophic calcification is seen in:-

Paget’s disease
Renal dystrophy
Milk-alkali syndrome

Correct Answer :- Atheroma

Autospelnectomy is seen in:-

Hereditary elliptocytosis
Hereditary spherocytosis
Sickel cell anemia
Thalessemia major

Correct Answer :- Sickel cell anemia

KOH in KOH wet mount is used:-

To kill fungal organisms in the clinical specimen
To remove bacterial contamination in specimen
All of these
To digest keratin in keratinized tissues and clear fungal elements

Correct Answer :- To remove bacterial contamination in specimen

Blood culture of a 70 year old female was taken, and a non-capsulated Gram-positive diplococcus arranged in V shape had grown within 24 hours. Initial tests indicated that this isolate was resistant to penicillin. The most likely pathogen is:-
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Enterococcus sp.
Group B streptococcus
Staphylococcus aureus

Correct Answer :- Enterococcus sp.

Most common tumour in men worldwide is:-


Correct Answer :- Lung

Spectrophotometric Glucose measurement by GOD-POD method producing red colored dye can use following filter:-

505 nm
630 nm
405 nm
340 nm

Correct Answer :- 505 nm

Laser printer is a type of:-

Both of these
Impact Printer
Non-impact printer
None of these

Correct Answer :- Non-impact printer

Anaerobic glycolysis produce excess of

Ketone bodies
Acetyl Co-A

Correct Answer :- Lactate

Internal Quality Control of Total bilirubin have mean of 5.0 mg/dl and SD of 0.5 mg/dl. Result obtained on a day is 5.7 mg/dl. Following QC rule is not satisfied:-

None of these

Correct Answer :- None of these

Internal Quality Control of Glucose have mean of 110 mg/dl and SD of 5 mg/dl. Result obtained on a day is 130 mg/dl. Following QC rule is not satisfied:-

None of these

Correct Answer :- 1(3S)

All of the following are true for autoimmunity EXCEPT:-

It is a problem of self and non self discrimination
It is a failure of immunotolerance
Neoantigens can lead to autoimmunity
It is immunity to self

Correct Answer :- It is immunity to self

The stain for demonstration of giycogen is:-

Sudan black B
PAS stain
Verhofs stain
Methyl violet

Correct Answer :- PAS stain

Contact dermatitis is an example of:

Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity
Type IV hypersensitivity

Correct Answer :- Type IV hypersensitivity

LAN stands for:-

Land Area Network
Least Area Network
Local Arc Network
Local Area Network

Correct Answer :- Local Area Network

Septic shock is generally caused by:-

Gram negative bacilli
Gram positive cocci
Acid fast bacilli

Correct Answer :- Gram negative bacilli

Glycolysis in stimulated by:-

None of these
Both of these

Correct Answer :- Insulin

Serum Creatinine estimation is done by:-

Biuret method
Uricase method
Bromo cresol green method
Jaffe kinetic method

Correct Answer :- Jaffe kinetic method

All the following are confirmatory Treponemal tests for Syphillis EXCEPT:

RP-CFT test
RPR test
ELISA test

Correct Answer :- RPR test

Bipolar staining is a characteristic feature of:

Yersinia pestis
Corynebacterium diptheriae

Correct Answer :- Yersinia pestis

M-band is seen in electrophoresis of:-

Multiple myeloma patient‘s serum
Any disease with abnormal hemoglobin
Sickle cell disease patient’s RBC
Thalassemia patient’s RBC

Correct Answer :- Multiple myeloma patient‘s serum

The graphs which represents data on maps are considered as:

symmetry graph

Correct Answer :- cartograms

During denaturation of protein following bonds are not broken:-

Peptide bond
Salt bond
Van der vaals interactions
Hydrogen bond

Correct Answer :- Peptide bond

A patient’s total cholesterol is 245 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol is 45 mg/dl and Triglyceride is 170 mg/dl. By Freidewald’s formula, This patient’s LDL cholesterol is:-


Correct Answer :- 166

Following is NOT TRUE regarding antigenic variation shown by certain viruses:-

Responsible for epidemics of such viral infections
Allows a virus to escape from host cells immunity
Hampers the development of vaccines against such viruses
Increases the number of carriers for such viral infections

Correct Answer :- Increases the number of carriers for such viral infections

Following processing of CSF sample, the remaining sample should be preserved at:-

25 – 30 ˚C
Minus 20 ˚C
2 – 4 ˚C
35 – 37 ˚C

Correct Answer :- 35 – 37 ˚C

Following is true regarding meningococci:

Capsular polysaccharide is used for preparation of vaccine
Oxidase test is negative
It is an important cause of meningitis in adult males
It is kidney shaped intracellular diplococci

Correct Answer :- Capsular polysaccharide is used for preparation of vaccine

The extent to which the values are dispersed around the central observation is considered as:-

centralized valuation

Correct Answer :- variation

Okazaki fragment is related to:-

Transcription of RNA
Translation of proteins
DNA replication
RNA formation

Correct Answer :- DNA replication

Apo-A is found in:-


Correct Answer :- HDL

Increase Hb A2 level on Hb chromatography is associated with:-

Thalassemia minor
Thalassemia major
Sickle cell
G6PD deficiency

Correct Answer :- Thalassemia minor

Tumor containing cells of all the three germ cell layers is:-

Small cell carcinoma

Correct Answer :- Teratoma

Difference between leukemia and leukemoid reaction is done by:-

Immature cells

Correct Answer :- LAP

For following test multiple samples are collected at about 20 minutes interval:-

Tumor markers
Glucose for GTTS
Thyroid profile

Correct Answer :- LH, FSH

CSF cell count of 22300/cmm with 95% neutrophils, glucose 3.5 mg/dl and protein 112 mg/dl is most likely suggestive of:-
Acute Bacterial meningitis
Fungal meningitis
Tuberculous meningitis
Viral meningitis

Correct Answer :- Acute Bacterial meningitis

All are benign tumors of stomach, EXCEPT:-


Correct Answer :- Lipoma

A computer consists of:-

Input and output unit
A memory
All of these
A central processing unit

Correct Answer :- All of these

All of the following statements are true for Rhinosporidiosis EXCEPT:-

It manifests as polyps that bleed easily.
It is caused by a fungus
The fungus is usually found in dirty waters
It can be cultured easily in laboratory.

Correct Answer :- It can be cultured easily in laboratory.

Which of the following is NOT an example of Oncogenic virus?

Human T cell lymphotrophic virus
Epstein-Barr virus
Hepatitis C virus
Parvovirus B19

Correct Answer :- Parvovirus B19

Which of the following is a purine nitrogenous base?


Correct Answer :- Guanine

Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding Herpes zoaster?

A non immune person can acquire Chicken pox following contact with patient with Herpes zoaster
It is reactivation of Varicella zoaster virus
It can happen in absence of history of Chicken pox
It can be diagnosed by examination of Tzanck smear

Correct Answer :- It can be diagnosed by examination of Tzanck smear

Transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus is an example of:-

Artificial active immunity
Artificial passive immunity
Natural passive immunity
Natural active immunity

Correct Answer :- Natural passive immunity

In thalassemia major following hemoglobin is markedly increased:-

Hb s
Hb D
Hb A2
Hb F

Correct Answer :- Hb F

The categories of measures of dispersion are classified as:-

uniform measures
(d) both (b) and (c)
relative measures
absolute measures

Correct Answer :- (d) both (b) and (c)

The causes of thrombosis include:-

Alteration in the blood flow
Hypercoagulable states
Endothelial injury
All of these

Correct Answer :- All of these

The equipment required to connect a home computer to internet is:-


Correct Answer :- Modem

The PT is not prolonged in:-

Vitamin K deficiency
Patient on anticoagulant therapy
Haemophilia A

Correct Answer :- Haemophilia A

The term used to describe frequency curve is:

kurtosis of distribution
symmetry and kurtosis
symmetrical distribution
relative frequency curve

Correct Answer :- symmetry and kurtosis

NABL accreditation for medical laboratories is based on:

ISO 17025:2012
ISO 17025:2007
ISO 15189:2012
ISO 15189:2007

Correct Answer :- ISO 15189:2012

IgM negative and IgG positive in dengue antibody test may indicate:-
Acute primary dengue infection
Acute secondary dengue infection
Early incubation period
None of these

Correct Answer :- Acute secondary dengue infection

A sample have slanted interface between Blood Cells and Plasma. It must have been centrifuged in:-

Fixed angle rotor
Low speed centrifuge
High speed centrifuge
Swing bucket rotor

Correct Answer :- Fixed angle rotor

Apply Curry Leaves in 3 Ways, You will Get Long And Strong Hair || Curry Leaves For Hair Growth

Curry leaves are very beneficial for increasing the length of hair, know, we Apply Curry Leaves in 3 Ways, You will Get Long And Strong Hair.

Apply Curry Leaves in 3 Ways, You will Get Long And Strong Hair

As much as the consumption of curry leaves is beneficial for health for a person, equally it is a miraculous medicine for our skin. Curry leaves are rich in antioxidants, along with they contain good amounts of essential nutrients like vitamin C, iron, calcium, and phosphorus, etc. We use curry leaves a lot every day to temper our dals, curries and vegetables. This not only enhances their taste but also provides many health benefits. Apart from this, curry leaves are also used as a home remedy to remove many problems related to skin and hair. Being rich in antioxidants, they help in maintaining physical health as well as beauty.

READ ALSO : Neutral home Remedies for Common Cold

Do you know that curry leaves increase the length of hair? That’s right, you read that! Curry leaves can be applied to the hair of people whose hair does not grow, falls a lot and new hair does not grow in its place. You can use it in the right way. How to use curry leaves for hair growth? How to grow hair with curry leaves? In this article, we are going to show you Apply Curry Leaves in 3 Ways, You will Get Long And Strong Hair.

Apply Curry Leaves in 3 Ways, You will Get Long And Strong Hair

Ways To use Curry Leaves For Hair Growth

1. Mix it with oil

Take coconut, mustard, olive, castor or almond oil in a pan as per requirement. Then put 7-8 curry leaves in it and heat it for a few minutes. If you want, you can also grind curry leaves and cook them in coconut oil. Let the mixture cool down and then apply it on the hair. Massage the scalp well. Leave it on the hair for at least 1 hour. After that wash your head using mild shampoo.

2. Add fenugreek seeds and curry leaves

Soak 1 teaspoon fenugreek seeds in half a cup of water for 7-8 hours. Grind it to make a fine paste. Now take coconut or mustard oil in a pan, add 7-8 curry leaves and heat it. Then put fenugreek seeds in it and roast it lightly. After the mixture cools down, apply it from scalp to entire hair, massage it and wash it after 1 hour.

3. Apply aloe vera and curry leaves

Both aloe vera and curry leaves are very beneficial for hair growth and are rich in antioxidants. Take 1-2 spoons of aloe vera gel, then grind 7-8 curry leaves and add it. Mix well and make a paste. Apply this paste to hair, scalp and split ends and wash after 1 hour.

In this way, by using curry leaves in hair, you can increase the length of your hair quickly. But try to apply it in hair 2-3 times a week.

Rose Day 2023 । Happy Rose Day !

Rose Day - 7th February 2023

Do you know that why is rose day celebrated ? So let us tell you that The Rose Day 2023 is going to be great for you if you love and are afraid to express it. If you want to express your feelings, then you can give each other roses. You want to know from when will Valentine’s Day 2023 end? So let us tell you that this year Valentine’s Day will start from Tuesday, February 7, 2023, and end on February 14, 2023, if you love someone and are afraid to express it, then take a little courage and express your love on this day keeping in mind the choice of your lover. Otherwise, you will be spared, you will remain unmarried, that’s why, my honor, by giving roses on this Rose Day, must ask for their mobile number.

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Valentine’s Day 2023 | Happy Valentine’s Day 2023

Teddy Day

The month of February call a month of excitement and enthusiasm for the lovers and much anticipation, this month brings lots of hope with lots of excitement and gaiety in the hearts of the lovers, and it is believed that lover’s couples are made in heaven, but couples only in February I get it only. Like every year, the loving couple is busy preparing for their lover. Together we are eagerly waiting for 14 February 2023 this year. This is a special occasion throughout the entire year, when Cupid takes a surge and gift giving gets trendy. It’s February and its Valentines month! Its Valentine’s month. All the unmarried boys who are not employe have started searching for gifts for their girlfriend by saving pocket money. Some people have even started online shopping, let us understand on Valentine’s Day 2023 that when what is going to come. It dates back to when romantic love was first associated with Geoffrey Chaucers circle in the High Middle Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. By the 15th century, it had developed into a celebration in which lovers celebrated each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionary, and greeting cards (known as the symbol of Valentine ) used to express their love by sending.

Valentine's Day 2023
Valentine’s Day 2023

In modern times, the symbols for Valentines Day have taken the form of a heart-shaped outline, a dove, and a winged cupid. Before 19th century, used handwritten valentines have been replaced by mass-produced greeting cards and symbols. Now in the 20th century, going beyond Valentines letter, planning has started through online chatting, video calling, WhatsApp etc.

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